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Eloise Whitebear Pease Collection II

Accession Number
Jon Ille
Access Restrictions on Use
Terms Governing Use and Reproduction
All publication rights are held by Little Big Horn College and use for publication must be approved by archivist.
Preferred Citation Of Materials
Eloise Whitebear Pease Collection II, Little Big Horn College Archives, Crow Agency, Montana.

Physical Description

Linear Feet
Comprehensive Dates
Material Included
Tribal Council minutes and resolutions; correspondence; economic development materials; Crow and Big Horn County historical and cultural research.
Organization of Material
Organized into three series: Crow tribal governance, Crow economic development, historical and cultural research. Interviews included in the collection were conducted during the production of Contrary Warriors detailing the life of Robert Yellowtail. Box ten also includes copies of Grass, Tipis, and Black Gold, Charles Bradley’s After the Buffalo Days, and bound cultural surveys of the Crow reservation from the 1970s.

Biographical Note

Eloise Whitebear Pease was born on September 1, 1917 and was one-half Crow, one-fourth Welsh, and one-fourth Scottish-Irish. Eloise attended schools in Crow Agency and Hardin, Montana and later attended Eastern Montana College and Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency where she received her Associate of Arts degree in 1990.

Eloise first started working in 1935 holding a variety of positions including secretary, bookkeeper, historian, program developer and director, teacher, librarian, researcher, and consultant until her retirement in 1987. After her retirement, Eloise remained active in community affairs and represented the Lodge Grass District in the Crow Tribal Legislature from 2002-2006. Her professional activities along with her role within tribal government represent a great deal of the material contained within this collection.

Beyond her professional experiences, Whitebear Pease also conducted a great deal of historical research on the Crow reservation and surrounding communities. This commitment to historical research culminated in her participation in the publication Grass, Tepees, and Black Gold in conjunction with the nation’s bicentennial in 1976. Whitebear Pease also wrote a pamphlet that detailed the history of the Crows dispute with the United States over the 107th Meridian land cession.


Eloise Whitebear Pease created or collected these records over her professional career and in the course of historical research. Therefore, they reflect her professional and scholarly activities. While they share many similarities with first Eloise Whitebear Pease Collection donated to the Little Big Horn College Archives in 1987, the separate donation and continued professional and scholarly activities warrant separate arrangement and description.

Scope and Content

This collection covers the period from 1825 to 2006, with the preponderance of material from the 1950s to 2006. Material related to Whitebear Pease’s professional activities includes Crow tribal council announcements, minutes, and resolutions with the bulk from the 1960s and 1970s when she served as secretary of the Crow Tribal Council. The collection also includes resolutions and correspondence from the Crow legislature after the passage of a new Crow constitution in 2001 during her tenure as a district legislator from Lodge Grass.

Along with her role in tribal government, Whitebear Pease also participated in economic development strategies for the Crow nation. Material related to this activity includes minutes, resolutions, and documents from Crow Industrial Development Committee and the subsequent economic proposals and entities that the committee enacted or created during the 1960s and 1970s.

As a Crow historian, Whitebear Pease collected a great deal of research dealing with pre and post reservation periods. While the bulk of historical research consists of federal documents and local histories, the collection also includes secondary sources along with her research notes and correspondence. The collection also includes teaching material on Crow/ Native American history and culture.

Series One: Crow Tribal Governance

This series includes material related to Crow tribal government from the 1950s to 2006 and includes tribal council minutes and resolutions; correspondence from the Crow Tribal Council (1950s to 2000), Crow Legislative Branch (2001-2006), Crow Tribal Chairmen (1950s-2001), Crow Executive Branch (2001-2006), and various tribal departments. The contents of the series are representative of issues the Crow faced legally and politically during the period under consideration but not exhaustive or complete in terms of content.

  • Subseries One: Tribal Minutes, Agendas, and Resolutions
    • Box One
      • File 1-Notices and Agendas, Crow Tribal Council, 1956-2006
      • File 2-Minutes, Crow Tribal Council, 1956-1965
      • File 3-Minutes, Crow Tribal Council, 1977-1989
      • File 4-Minutes, Crow Legislative Branch, 2002-2006
      • File 5-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1950-1960
      • File 6-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1961-1962
      • File 7-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1963
      • File 8-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1964
      • File 9-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1965-1969
      • File 10-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1970-1979
      • File 11-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1980-1989
      • File 12-Resolutions, Crow Tribal Council, 1990-1999
    • Box Two
      • File 13-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, 2000-2001
      • File 14-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, 2003
      • File 15-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, 2004
      • File 16-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, January-April, 2005
      • File 17-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, May-July, 2005
      • File 18-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, October 2005
      • File 19-Resolutions, Crow Legislative Branch, 2006
  • Subseries Two: Legal Issues, Crow Tribe: Subseries two includes legal motions and briefs, along with court decisions pertaining to proceedings that involved both tribal government and members of the Crow tribe.
    • Box Three
      • File 1-Address, Patrick Stands Over Bull, American Bar Association, 1977
      • File 2-Tribal Court Decisions, 1981-2004
      • File 3-Montana State Court Decision, Abe vs. Pease, et. al, 1973
      • File 4-Federal Court Decisions, Pertaining to Crow Tribe, 1959-1980
      • File 5-Federal Court Decisions, Pertaining to Crow Tribe, 1987-2006
      • File 6-Legal Correspondence, Pertaining to Crow Tribe, 1987-2006
      • File 7-Documents, Establishment of Crow Tribal Judiciary, 2003
      • File 8-Proceedings, Crow Tribe vs. Wyoming
      • File 9-Crow Tribe vs. Wyoming, Answers to Discovery
      • File 10-Crow Tribe vs. Wyoming, Pleadings
      • File 11-Wyoming vs. Ten Bear
      • File 12-Transcripts, Wyoming vs. Ten Bear
      • File 13-Exhibits A-K, Crow Tribe vs. Wyoming
  • Subseries Three: Departmental Administration and Correspondence: Subseries three contains materials related to tribal departmental administration and correspondence between the branches of government within the Crow Nation. The administrative material demonstrates the various functions departments undertook, while correspondence illustrates the roles that each branch of government played in relation to one another before and after the passage of a new Crow constitution in 2001.

Series Two: Economic Development

This series documents potential areas of economic development on the Crow reservation with a particular emphasis on water rights, the actions of the Crow Industrial Development Committee, Crow Tribal Recreation Committee, and mineral leases and the economic impact of mining on the reservation. The minutes of the Crow Industrial Development Committee demonstrates the varied approached to economic development that occurred on the Crow reservation during the 1960s and 1970s.

  • Subseries One: Water Rights: Subseries one discusses the historical development and economic implications of water rights on reservations across the United States focusing on the Crow reservation.
    • Box Five
      • File 1-Document, “Historical Analysis of Water Development on the Crow Reservation,” 1989
      • File 2-Documents, Historical Analysis of Crow Water Rights
      • File 3-Statements, Memorandum, and Correspondence on Water Rights, 1958-1999
      • File 4-Legislation and Court Decisions Related to Water Rights, 1908-1999
      • File 5-Crow Tribe Water Compact (1999), Documents and Agreements
  • Subseries Two: Economic Development Strategies, 1960s and 1970s: Subseries two details economic development activities on the Crow reservation with a particular focus on the Crow Industrial Development Committee on which Eloise Whitebear Pease served as a member. The subseries also documents the Big Horn Carpet Mill that the committee helped open in 1968.
    • Box Six
      • File 1-Minutes, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1965
      • File 2-Minutes, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1966
      • File 3-Minutes, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1967
      • File 4-Minutes, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1968
      • File 5-Minutes, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1969
      • File 6-Correspondence, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1966-1969
      • File 7-Resolutions, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1966-1978
      • File 8-Agreements, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1968
      • File 9-Audit, Crow Industrial Development Committee, 1966, 1968
      • File 10-Feasibility Study, Power Generating Plant, 1967
      • File 11-Feasibility Study, New Indian Health Service Hospital, 1968
      • File 12-Evaluations and Long Term Plans, Economic Development on the Crow reservation, 1974
      • File 13-Business Plan, Elmer Hyde
      • File 14-Finances, Big Horn Carpet Mill, Inc., 1968
      • File 15-Minutes, Crow Tribal Recreation Commission, 1970-1973
      • File 16-Correspondence, Crow Tribal Recreation Commission, 1970-1971
      • File 17-Plan of Operation, Crow Tribal Recreation Commission
      • File 18-Resolutions, By Crow Tribal Recreation Commission
      • File 19-Development and Management Plan, Crow Buffalo Pasture
      • File 20-Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Draft Interpretive Prospectus
      • File 21-Management Study, Arts and Crafts, Northern Cheyenne
  • Subseries Three: Minerals, Land, and Labor: Subseries three details specific economic activity on the reservation including mineral agreements, both proposed and implemented leases. The subseries also includes documents and reports from the Council of Energy Resource Tribes, leases of Crow allotments, and labor surveys of Crow tribal members.
    • Box Seven
      • File 1-Correspondence, Related to Mineral Production, 1966-2003
      • File 2-Reports on Mineral Production, Undated
      • File 3-Reports on Mineral Production, 1967-2003
      • File 4 - Newspaper Articles Related to Mineral Production, 1965-2005
      • File 5-Apsaalooke Energy Corporation
      • File 6-Agreements on Mineral Leases, 1966-2004
      • File 7-Westmoreland Resources, Inc.
      • File 8-Alliance Energy, LLC
      • File 9-Sinoenergy, LLC
      • File 10-Coal and Air Quality, Crow Reservation
      • File 11-Financial Statement, U.S. Automatics, 1966
      • File 12-Montana Coal Severance Tax
      • File 13-Pamphlet, “Socio-Economic Impacts of Coal Development on Indians of the Northern Great Plains”
      • File 14-Council of Energy Resource Tribes, Bulletin, January, 1982
      • File 15-Synthetic Fuels, 1981
      • File 16-Information, 107th Meridian Dispute and Resolution
      • File 17-Leases, 1963-2005
      • File 18-Labor Force Surveys, 1970s
      • File 19-Feasibility Study, Council of Energy Resource Tribes, Crow Electric Power Generation Project

Series Three: Historical and Cultural Research

Series three documents Eloise Whitebear Pease’s activities as Crow scholar and educator. Along with incorporating historical and cultural materials related to this role, the series includes information related to both the Whitebear and Pease families. Also, the series incorporates historical documents primarily written by Agency staff related to reservation issues that do not fit within the functional contexts of series one and two.

  • Box Eight
    • File 1-Pease Family History
    • File 2-Pease Family Members on 1910 Crow Census
    • File 3-Whitebear and Cooper Genealogy
    • File 4-Genealogy, Crow Families
    • File 5-Eloise Whitebear Pease Writings, History and Culture
    • File 6-Report, “Needs for New Constitution (Crow Tribe),” 1998
    • File 7-Eloise Whitebear Pease, Notes on Hardin History
    • File 8-Eloise Whitebear Pease, Writings and Notes on Whitebear Family
    • File 9-Eloise Whitebear Pease, Notes on Crow History and Culture
    • File 10-Montana Writers Project, Submissions
    • File 11-Montana Writers Project, Works Progress Administration, 1942
    • File 12-Correspondence, Burton K. Wheeler
    • File 13-Correspondence, Tom Conroy
    • File 14-Historical Documents and Correspondence, Crow Tribe
    • File 15-Congressional Legislation Related to Crow Tribe
    • File 16-Documents From Crow History, 1884-1994
    • File 17-Crow Treaties, Agreements, Laws-Charles Kappler, 1825-1904
    • File 18-Minutes, Crow Tribal General Council, June 11, 1948
    • File 19-Legislation Regarding Indian Councils
    • File 20-Baptisms, Crow Baptist Church-1915, 1921
    • File 21-General Data, Crow Tribe, Various Dates
    • File 22-BIA Fact Sheet, Crow Indian Reservation, 1967
    • File 23-Crow Population, 1970
    • File 24-Materials Related to 1948 Crow Constitution
    • File 25-2001, Crow Constitution
    • File 26-Proposed Constitution and By-Laws of the Crow Tribal Council
    • File 27-Description, Crow Tribal Business Council
    • File 28, Montana Tribal Constitutions
    • File 29-Eastern Shoshone, Report on 1874 Land Values
    • File 30-Crow Indian Veterans
    • File 31-Crow Indian Women Who Dress Traditionally, 1987
    • File 32-Historical Developments in the Upper Yellowstone Valley, 1850-1885
    • File 33-Wills of Crow Indian Men
    • File 34-Big Lark, Will and Documents
    • File 35-Application for Fee Patent, 1973
    • File 36-Crow Lullabies
  • Box 9
    • File 37-Robert Yellowtail, Writings on Indian Politics
    • File 38-Speech, Clara Nomee, Montana Civil Jurisdiction Over Indians
    • File 39-Remarks, Marvin L. Franklin, 1973
    • File 40-Speech, Peter Plenty Hawk, Lodge Grass Mayor
    • File 41-Donald Deernose, An Open Letter to All Crow Tribal Members, 1965
    • File 42-Community Development Problems in Montana, 1960s
    • File 43-Participants, Custer Reenactment
    • File 44-Minutes, Bureau-Tribal Conference, 1956
    • File 45-Minutes, Annual Meeting of the Native American Church, 1958
    • File 46-Bi-centennial Documents, Big Horn County, 1956
    • File 47-Biographies, Country Western Singers
    • File 48-Anthropology and Archaeology, Data and Holdings (Crow)
    • File 49-Photograph, Crow Agency Baptist Church (Photocopy)
    • File 50-Photographs, Agriculture, 1930s to 1950s
    • File 51-Historical Photographs, Crow Indians
    • File 52-Map, Crow Agency, 1930
    • File 53-Map, Big Horn Economic Development District
    • File 54-Map, Crow Agency, 1902-1910
    • File 55-BIA, Land Maps and Grids
    • File 56-Maps and Documents Related to Early Allotments
    • File 57-Map, 1904 Ceded Strip
    • File 58-Newsletters, Citizen’s Rights Organization
    • File 59-Pamphlets
    • File 60-Outline, Working with Crow People in the NAGPRA Process, A Forum
    • File 61-Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1864-1890
    • File 62-Master’s Thesis, Joe Medicine Crow, 1939
    • File 63-Sarah Cooper, “The Crow Indians,” 1939
    • File 64-Jarvis Door, “The Crow Indians”
    • File 65-Publications Produced by or Related to Crow Indians
    • File 66-Publications, Indian Arts, Crafts, and Culture
    • File 67-Newsletters, Big Horn County Historical Society
    • File 68-Publications Related to Native American Issues
  • Box 10
    • File 69 - Newspaper Clippings, 1926 Murder at Crow Agency
    • File 70 - Newspaper Clippings, November, 1961
    • File 71 - Newspaper Clippings, January, 1962
    • File 72 - Newspaper Clippings, February, 1962
    • File 73 - Newspaper Clippings, May, 1962
    • File 74 - Newspaper Clippings, June 1962
    • File 75 - Newspaper Clippings, July 1962
    • File 76 - Newspaper Clippings, August, 1962
    • File 77 - Newspaper Clippings, September, 1962
    • File 78 - Newspaper Clippings, November, 1964
    • File 79 - Newspaper Clippings, March, 1965
    • File 80 - Newspaper Clippings, April, 1965
    • File 81 - Newspaper Clippings, June, 1965
    • File 82 - Newspaper Clippings, July 1965
    • File 83 - Newspaper Clippings, September, 1965
    • File 84 - Newspaper Clippings, October, 1965
    • File 85 - Newspaper Clippings, February, 1966
    • File 86 - Newspaper Clippings, March, 1966
    • File 87 - Newspaper Clippings, May, 1966
    • File 88 - Newspaper Clippings, November, 1966
    • File 89 - Newspaper Clippings, December, 1966
    • File 90 - Newspaper Clippings, April, 1967
    • File 91 - Newspaper Clippings, February, 1967
    • File 92 - Newspaper Clippings, March-April, 1977
    • File 93 - The Crow Indian Sentinel, ND
    • File 94 - Interviews - Contrary Warriors
    • File 95 - Interviews - Contrary Warriors
    • File 96 - Interviews - Contrary Warriors
    • File 97 - Interviews - Contrary Warriors

Addendum: On April 10, 2012, the Little Big Horn College Archives received another donation of material from Eloise Whitebear Pease’s family. Due to the limited nature of the donation, a decision was made to incorporate the material into series three due to its cultural, historical, and political nature. The numbers for this addition begins at file 98 and concludes with file 126.

  • File 98 - Eloise Whitebear Pease Autobiographical Sketch, 1956
  • File 99 - Crow History Notes and Newspaper Clippings File 100-Historical Notes and Newspaper Clippings on Hardin, Montana and Crow Reservation
  • File 101 - Annual Narrative and Statistical Reports, Crow Reservation, 1910-1917
  • File 102 - Historical and Cultural Material, Crow Reservation, 1967-1977
  • File 103 - Historical and Cultural Material, Crow Reservation, 1977-1987, 1
  • File 104 - Historical and Cultural Material, Crow Reservation, 1977-1987, 2
  • File 105 - Resume, Eloise Whitebear Pease
  • File 106 - The Hunt, Written by Eloise Whitebear Pease
  • File 107 - The Eye Opener, Written by Eloise Whitebear Pease
  • File 108 - One Acre of Heaven, Written by Eloise Whitebear Pease
  • File 109 - Masquerade Boomerang, Written by Eloise Whitebear Pease
  • File 110 - Photocopy of Indians at Work, January, 1938
  • File 111 - List of Individuals Clan Affiliations, Crow Reservation, ND
  • File 112 - Crow Tribal Treaty Centennial Issue, 1968
  • File 113 - Fliers, Custer’s Last Stand Re-enactment, 1971
  • File 114 - Story on Crow Horses, Big Horn County News, 1997
  • File 115 - Crow Stories Point Us to the Creator’s Truth, Volumes I and II
  • File 116 - Correspondence, 1941 - 2007, Eloise Whitebear Pease, Crow Tribe with Federal Agencies and Individuals
  • File 117 - Senate Bill 1080, Crow Tribe Land resolution Act of 2007
  • File 118 - Postcard, Barney Old Coyote for Chairman of the Crow Tribe
  • File 119 - Candidate Information, Crow Tribal Election, 1966
  • File 120 - Sale of Fee Patented Land, Eloise Whitebear Pease, 1951
  • File 121 - Petition to United States Interstate Commerce Commission Regarding Reservation Industrialization, 1968
  • File 122 - City of Sheridan, Wyoming vs. United States of America, 1969
  • File 123 - Crow vs. Norton Joint Stipulation Settlement, 2006
  • File 124 - Quarterly Reports, Big Horn Development Corporation, 1969-1970
  • File 125 - Crow Synfuel Project, Map and Economic Projections
  • File 126 - Report, Author Cliff Kees, Resources in Big Horn Mountains, 1977