Cataloging Manual

by Suvi A. Scott
Little Big Horn College
June 2013

Table of Contents


Librarians commonly shudder when the need for original cataloging rears its ugly head – the task is tedious and bogged down by way too many rules. Boring! Though such a reputation may be justified, the sad fact remains that without cataloging specific books in libraries would be tough to find. Only patrons content to browse the shelves and pick up those works that tickle their fancy would leave the building with something to read. As fun as such serendipitous searching can be it’s not a very efficient way to find titles that meet a specific need, like information for a term paper. To do that, there has to be a way of knowing what the library has and where it is located.

That is where cataloging comes in. Cataloging simply means the creation of bibliographical descriptions of the various documents within the library in order to organize the collection so that it is easy for the patrons to use it. True, to make sure your work is compatible with that of others, you will have to follow some rules (most often the Anglo American Cataloging Rules or AACR for short) when you catalog. These rules organize the bibliographic description of an item in the following areas: title and statement of responsibility (author or editor), edition, material specific details (for example, the scale of a map), publication and distribution, physical description (for example, number of pages), and notes. When done correctly anyone in the world with internet access can locate those works that match their search criteria, including the titles in your collection. Because tribal college libraries commonly collect works that chronicle and preserve tribal culture, customs, language and history they tend to include material that is unique. These items seldom have convenient records available from OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) or WorldCat. Instead, you are often required to make one from scratch.

Even in those cases that a basic record already exists, they are frequently perfunctory. Because most libraries only have limited works dealing with any given tribe, cataloging everything under the proper subject heading for that tribe is adequate. Thus most of the existing records on works about the Crow Indians have the call number C92 = Crow Indians. However, when you have hundreds of books that deal with the Crow Indians in one way or another, you have to come up with a different way of classifying them. To achieve this you can make extensive use local subject headings.

This manual is meant to help you with both types of situations.

The first part is a straightforward, step by step accounting on how to create an original descriptive cataloging* entry for any type of item you have in your collection. Descriptive cataloging deals with describing the physical details of an item. It enables a user to retrieve the materials in the library by title, author, date, etc. -- in short all the searchable elements of a catalog record except the subjects. It deals with the identification of these elements, the acceptable sources for this information and how to record it in order to create a proper cataloging entry. The manual will show you what to do if some of the information is missing or in a ‘wrong’ place. It’ll also show you how to fill in the corresponding MARC* (Machine Readable Cataloging) fields.

After we cover the correct way to create each descriptive item (part a) we give you detailed information (with lots of examples) on how to convert this portion of your record into a MARC record (part b – MARC conversion).

The second section gives you ideas on creating a thorough summary. How to do it and why you should consider spending the time doing it?

In the third segment we go over the creation of local indices – one for names and another for subjects. Though these are labor intensive, they do offer access to your collection on a much more detailed level. Your users can locate a huge amount of information about such works online, giving them a better chance to find everything that deals with their chosen topic without actually skimming through the books.

This approach is what makes our “core collection” records at the Little Big Horn College truly unique. Works about Native Americans commonly include lots of names – either people who did something or who were sources of information.

Many of our patrons are interested in finding any mention of a certain name. To help them in their search we came up with the idea of an online “local name index”. It lists every Crow name, and the pages it can be found on, the work contains. We created a similar exhaustive local subject index. It lists every piece of information related to the Crows a book includes. These are “bundled” into categories of similar topics to simplify finding those that seem interesting to the user. Both the subject index and the name index are fully searchable. This manual will explain how to create such indices for your own library.

The fourth section is devoted to subject analysis. It offers you solutions on creating a fuller, more involved record for those works in your library’s collection that could benefit from such treatment. The detailed records we have created at the Little Big Horn College contain a carefully crafted, comprehensive summary of the work that lets the patron know at a glance (admittedly a rather lengthy glance) whether the item will fulfill his/her needs or not. On top of that we have created a long list of local subject headings – in the style of LC (Library of Congress) subject headings, but without the strict rules that govern the actual LC subject headings – that itemizes all the topics any given work deals with. In most libraries a work titled ‘Peyotism in Montana’ – an article dealing mostly with the Native American Church on the Crow reservation - would be classified as E99.C92 = Crow Indians. They have few enough titles in their collections about the Crow to make searching for them feasible without any further refinement of topics. As long as people find the E99.C92 section on the shelves, they’ll find everything the library has on the Crow Indians.

Since we try to avoid the E99.C92 call number as much as possible, we cataloged it under the LC subject heading (650) Indians of North America – Religion and Mythology = E98.R3. To account for the use of peyote mentioned in the title, another LC subject heading Indians of NA – Peyotism seemed appropriate. Because it also deals with the actual rituals observed in the church services we added a local subject heading (690) of Crow Indians - Rites and ceremonies. To cover the historical aspects another 690 of Crow Indians – History was added, and finally Crow Indians - Government relations to clue in anyone looking for information on the legal battles Native Americans went through to attain the right to use peyote in their ceremonies.

Note: You can substitute your tribe’s name for ‘Indians of North America’ when you write down the subject heading in your cataloging entry: 650 E98.R3 = Crow Indians – Religion and mythology.

Thus the detailed records you can devise using this manual will open your collection to much greater use and help your patrons to learn more about their tribal heritage.

To simplify matters we’ll use creating a record for the most commonly encountered item in any library, a book (= monograph*) as the main example on how to proceed. Any additional information you need to catalog other materials you may encounter; CDs, articles, web sites, maps etc. are included when appropriate.

A definition for a term (typed in bold) followed by an asterisk (*) can be found in the glossary in appendix A. It contains numerous other terms related to cataloging as well.

Because this manual is cursory at best and only covers those AACR2 rules most commonly encountered, it is recommended you purchase a current copy of the complete rules. A good place to get the latest version is the ALA store at

For more information about MARC you can read through the section about MARC in appendix C. It contains most of the facts that you might need in your work. If you can’t find what you are looking for, visit the LC MARC site at You can print a copy of both MARC Lite (a handy condensed version of the rules and most commonly encountered tags) as well as the complete MARC manual.

When you get stumped despite your best efforts and the help from the above sources, the best bet is to contact the cataloging department in one of your state’s big universities. Their head catalogers are usually a great source of information about how to deal with any oddities you may encounter and usually more than willing to help. Another truly good resource is the cataloging department at the Library of Congress. You can e-mail them with your questions. It might take a while to get an answer, but they always come through in the end, and their advice is solid.

Descriptive Cataloging

Because today the main purpose of creating a descriptive record is to copy down the correct information, in the correct form, from the correct source, for the eventual MARC conversion we will follow the order set by the fields in the MARC format. Thus we start with the author rather than title.

When you think of locating a book, you probably rely on one of the following approaches: what is the title of it or who wrote it?

In this instance, surprisingly, the powers that be concurred.

The first item (called the main entry*), that goes into your cataloging record is the author of the book. Of course the rules would never simply call it an author. Rather the author is referred to as the ‘entity responsible for the work’, thus the first part of your record is called statement of responsibility*. This actually makes sense since this entry includes such additional options as composers and film producers etc., as well as authors, depending on the item you are cataloging.

There are three different ‘types’ of authors for books: personal name, corporate name, and meeting name. Though they are treated in the same manner in your descriptive entry, they are recorded under different fields when transcribed into MARC.

To further confuse you, the official source (often called chief source*) of this information is neither the cover nor the spine of the book, but rather the title page*.

Following table shows you the correct places to look for the information in various types of material when you are creating your description.

As a first step, take a good look at the item to be cataloged, including the dust jacket if there is one, as well as any other materials accompanying the item. This is an attempt to discover all the routine data needed (information about the publication, etc., area, the author, ISBN, etc.) as well as other facts which may call for unusual treatment. If everything seems to be in order, proceed to write down the author’s name.

Copy the author’s name from the title page. This is most commonly done in the order of last name first, followed by first name, and middle one if listed. The inverted name is followed by a period.

If this information comes from some other source than the title page, you need to put square brackets around it.

Note: when you do something out of the ordinary that requires the use of square brackets, you need to add a note under the 500 field in MARC explaining the brackets. In this case your note may state: Author name from the cover. Check the LC Database for a presence of an authority record for the author’s name. If found, use the exact form of heading as represented in that record.

Material Title & Statement of Responsibility EDITION Publication & Distribution
Book Title page Title page, other preliminaries, colophon. Title page, other preliminaries, colophon.
Maps Chief source of information = the map itself. Chief source of information. Chief source of information.
Videos Chief source of information = item itself (i.e. title frame or the container + label). Chief source of information. Chief source of information.
Sound recordings Chief source of information = disc and label. Chief source of information. Chief source of information.
Electronic resources Chief source of information = resource itself (title screen, main menu etc.)
Information issued by publisher or creator, container.
Chief source of information
Information issued by publisher or creator, container.
Chief source of information, information issued by publisher or creator, container.

If you can’t easily locate the name of the person/entity responsible for the work, leave it out. In these cases the title becomes the main entry.

If the book has multiple authors (three or less) you will list them all in the statement of responsibility area.

If there are more than three authors only the first one is listed. The omission of the others is indicated by ... [et. al.].

Example: Bernardis, Timothy ...[et al.].

Note: List the other authors by name in the 700 field as added entries. If the work has multiple statements of responsibility (for different kinds of responsibilities of the work)they are described in the order they appear in the title page or ‘in the order that makes the most sense’. They are separated from each other by space-semicolon-space.

Example: Life of a dog / Tammi, Outi ; translated from Finnish by Suvi Scott ; with an introduction by Douglas Scott.

If the relationship of the person in the statement of responsibility to the work is not clear, you can add an explanation [in square brackets].

Example: Oral histories of the Crow Indians / [collected by] Timothy McCleary. For additional information about how MARC works see appendix C.

Fields 100, 110, 111 and 130 contain a name or a uniform title heading used as main entry.

Full descriptions of the first indicator and all subfield codes, as well as how to input your data for the X00, X10, X11, and X30 fields, are given in appendix C in the section about explanations for indicators (including source codes for 2nd indicators) and subfield codes with guidelines for application.

043 = geographic area code. If the book deals with a certain state, for example Montana, you can add a MARC field 043 as your first tag. There are no indicators.

Example: 043 n-us-mt

100 – Main entry = personal name (NR). The most common way to record this is to invert the author’s name – last name first, then first name, and middle one if it is listed, followed by a period. If you use this method, put in 1 as your first indicator. The second indicator is left blank.

Note: OMNI records do not use the subfield symbol |a before the author’s name, or in any other field.

If there are dates associated with the name (happens commonly with the authorized forms designated by LC) add the subfield |d and the dates, i.e., |d 1923-2000.

Example: 100 1 Scott, Suvi A.

Example: 100 1 Medicine Crow, Joseph.|d1913- If the work is a collection of existing materials, you can use the name of the person who collected the material as an author, then use subfield |e (relator term) to explain his role.

Example: 100 1 McCleary, Timothy. |ecollector. ? 110 – Main entry = corporate name (NR). If the publication is created by a corporation (e.g. your college), you would use MARC field 110. The most common first indicator is 2 = you record the corporate name in direct order. The second indicator is left blank.

Example: 110 2 Little Big Horn College. ? 111 – Main entry = meeting name (NR). A meeting name used as a main entry is most often recorded in direct order = use 2 as your first indicator. Second indicator is left blank.

You can add subfield |c for the location of the meeting (either place name or name of institution where meeting was held). Subfield |d is used for the date of the meeting. These are done in reverse order, see example.

Example: 111 2 The Tribal College Librarians Professional Development Institute|d2005 : |cWashington, D.C.

The next item in your record is the title. You should copy the exact wording, order, and spelling of the title. However, you may need to change the capitalization – in a proper record only the first word is capitalized. Also, in some cases you may need to use additional punctuation.

Example: title as it appears on the title page:
Feeling Mad
Feeling Sad
Feeling Glad

You would transcribe this as: Feeling mad, feeling sad, feeling glad.

Three dots (...) in the title are replaced by a dash (-).

Square brackets [] in the title are replaced by parenthesis ().

If the title proper is missing from the chief source, you can supply one from anywhere else you can find one. If no title is available, you need to make one up. This field has to be filled. To denote the irregularity of the source, the title is enclosed within square brackets in the record. Remember to note this in the 500 field in MARC.

It the title is listed in two languages, referred to as a parallel title by AACR, you need to record it in the form it is found with a space, equal sign, space between the two forms of the title.

Example: Baláshe Harold huuk : Iilúupe = My name is Harold : book II. Other title information, such as subtitle(s) follow the title proper with space – colon – space.

Example: I am a rock : a Crow story. If the title proper needs an explanation, an explanatory term or phrase is added in brackets as other title information. Such additions are preceded by a colon so as to distinguish them from the form GMDs (General Material Designation).

Example: I am me being me : [an anthology of student poems from Crow Agency and Fort Smith elementary schools]

This is also where you make it clear to your patrons what the media = what type of material, the work is by adding the subfield |h = medium or GMD (General Material Designation), if it is not a book. This subfield is recorded directly after the title, without spaces and put into square brackets.

Example: 245 03 Un de’ che cha pí|h[sound recording] =|bThe way we are /|cMary Louise Defender Wilson.

245 = Title statement (NR).

1st indicator usually 1 (means there is an author listed in 100).

2nd indicator accounts for the number of spaces to be skipped when the computer reads the title, e.g., a=2, an=3, and the=4 (these account for the number of letters + the space after them before the first actual word of the title). Once again OMNI leaves out the subfield marker |a before the actual title.

Type in the title as it appears on the title page. It is not followed by a period, but a space, forward slash and subfield |c for the author. In this field the author’s name is in direct order (forename first).

Example: 245 10 There are no problem horses, only problem riders /|cMary Twelveponies.

Note: Use “by” in front of the author’s name only when that is the way it appears in the cover of the book. In the above example the cover simply states the book’s title and the author’s name = NO excuse to put by into subfield c. In the example below, “by” precedes the author’s name on the cover, thus you should include it in the title field.

Example: 245 10 Crow Indian medicine bundles /|cbyWilliam Wildschut ; edited by John C. Ewers.

If the title has two parts (= subtitle), you separate them with a space, colon, flat bar and a lower case letter b = :|b.

Example: 245 14 The Crow on horseback :|b from the Great Plains to the Obama inaugural /|cPat Hill.

Do not enter anything under subfield |h = medium, when you are cataloging a book, but for any other type of material use it. It goes right after the title without any spaces and is placed into square brackets.

Example: 245 10 Crow language|h[electronic resource] /|cDale Old Horn.

246 = Varying form of title (NR). You can add this field if there is a subtitle to the work.

Note: LC prefers using subfield b in the 245 field to using the 246 field.

First indicator is usually 2 = no note, no title added entry.

Second indicator is a 0 = portion of title.

Subfield code |b indicates the remainder of the title.

Example: 246 20 |bfrom the Great Plains to the Obama inaugural.

If the work is anything else than the first edition list it. Transcribe it as found, but use the standard abbreviations found in Appendix B of AACR2R and numerals as found in Appendix C of AACR2R.

Example: 3rd ed., rev. and enl.

250 = Edition statement (NR).

If the work is anything else than the first edition list it. Both indicators are left blank.

OMNI leaves out the subfield |a to indicate the edition.

Use subfield |b (separated by space, forward slash) to add any additional information listed in the new edition.

Example: 250 3rd ed. /|brevised by Joan Smiley.

This information is derived from the title page, other preliminaries*, and the colophon*.

The details about place(s), name(s), and date(s) relating to publishing, releasing, and manufacturing the monograph are recorded in this area.

If there is more than one place, name, and/or date listed, they are recorded in an order appropriate to the item in hand.

The place of publication is recorded as it appears at the source.

The name of the country, state, or province is added to the name when necessary to distinguish between places or if necessary for identification. Use brackets if it doesn’t appear in the source information.

The name of the place is separated from the period after the author’s name by space-dash-space (. - )

Example: Apsaalooke (Crow Indian) Country: 1700-1900 / Rickard A. Ross. - El Segundo, Calif. : Upton & Sons, 2010.

If several places are listed for the publisher, transcribe the first one. If another is typographically prominent, transcribe it as well.

If neither of the above are in the USA, also transcribe the first place given that is in the USA.

Places are separated from each other by a space-semicolon-space.

Example: Educational theory : an introduction / T.W. Moore. – London ; Boston.

A probable place is given in brackets with a question mark when the place of publication is uncertain.

Example: Law and order codes : the Crow Tribe of Indians / Devereaux Old Elk. – [Crow Agency, Mont.?]

After the place you add the name of the publisher. It is separated from the place by a space-colon-space.

Example: Apsaalooke (Crow Indian) Country: 1700-1900 / Rickard A. Ross. - El Segundo, Calif. : Upton & Sons

If the name of the publisher is unknown, the abbreviation s.n. (sine nomine) is used in brackets.

Example: Law and order codes : the Crow Tribe of Indians / Devereaux Old Elk. – [Crow Agency, Mont.? : s.n.]

Finally you need to add the date of publication to this entry. It follows a comma, space (,) after the publisher.

Example: Apsaalooke (Crow Indian) Country: 1700-1900 / Rickard A. Ross. - El Segundo, Calif. : Upton & Sons, 2010.

If the date of publication is unknown, use the copyright date, preceded by c.

Example: Law and order codes : the Crow Tribe of Indians / Devereaux Old Elk. – [Crow Agency, Mont.? : s.n.], c.1994.

260 = Publication information (R).

The first indicator refers to the sequence of publishing statements. Meaning if there is more than one, which one did you transcribe.

Most commonly first indicator is left blank. This means that either there is no information about the sequence of publishers or you transcribed the earliest available publisher.

OMNI does not use |a before the place of publication. The most commonly used subfields are:

|a = Place of publication. If the place is unknown you may use the abbreviation S.l. in square brackets [S.l.] to indicate this.

|b = Name of publisher. If the name is unknown, you may use s.n. in square brackets [s.n.] to indicate this.

|c = Date of publication. May contain both dates of publication and copyright.

Example: 260 Helena, Montana :|b High Country Press,|c 2010.


This is the place in your description where you answer the question of how many of what does the work consist of.

In the case of a book, the answer most commonly is a certain number of pages.

The number is prescribed in Arabic numerals followed by p. [= abbreviation for page(s)]. There is a space between the numeral and the material designation.

Example: 114 p.

Use the word page, if the text is printed on both sides of the page. Leaves are printed only on one side.

If the preface or introduction is numbered with Roman numerals, list both the last page in Roman numerals as well as the last page in the Arabic numbered sequence.

Example: vi, 342 p.

If the entire work lacks page numbers, you can count them (if it’s short enough) then list them in square brackets.

Example: [14] p.

If the item is large, you can just estimate the number of pages and record it following “ca”.

Example: ca. 450 p.

Note: Library of Congress does not follow this last AACR2 rule. Rather they record the work as follows: 1 v. (unpaged).

If the item is in large print, you should add this to the statement of extent.

Example: 230 p. (large print)

Illustrative matter

If the monograph contains illustrations, the abbreviation “ill” is added to the physical description following the extent by space-colon-space.

Example: 22 p. : ill.

If some or all of these illustrations are in color, you would record it in the manner of the following example.

Example: 145 p. : ill. (some col.). or 145 p. : col. ill.

If the item illustrations include maps, plans, portraits or samples, you list these items separately in alphabetical order.

Example: 98 p. : ill., maps (some col.), col. ports.

If the book contains separate plates of illustrations, you can record them in the following manner:

Example: 136 p., [14] p. of plates : col. ill.

The purpose of prescribing the dimensions of the item is to make it easier for the patron to locate the item on the shelves.

The dimensions are separated from the extent of the physical details by spacesemicolon- space.

The size in the case of a book refers to its height (in centimeters). Measure the height of the binding (or the height of the item if not bound) to the nearest whole centimeter up.

Example: xiv, 122 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. [The book actually measured 24.4 cm, so you’d record it as 25 cm.].

300 = Physical description.

Pagination (how many pages) :|b = illustrations ;|c = dimensions.

Example: 300 240 p. :|bcol.ill. ;|c28 cm.

Note: In most catalogs the various 500 fields are not searchable. However, OMNI made both 592 and 593, the two local index fields created by Little Big Horn College, searchable.

Fields 500-59X are meant for various bibliographic notes. Each note is entered as a separate 5XX field. Though the various 500 fields do not strictly speaking belong to the descriptive part of the catalog record, most of the fields [500-58X] contain notes describing aspects of the work that a patron might find useful. Such as the language note (546) where you can make a note about the fact that the work contains other language than English, for example Crow. Or the 505 field where you can list the contents (either all of it or just those parts that you deem valuable to your users).

General notes are recorded in field 500 (General Note). Specialized notes are contained in fields 501-586. Many of the fields are very specific about the type of information you should enter in them, so before you decide to create a general note, make sure there isn’t another one available already made for that purpose (such as the thesis note = 502). Library of Congress prefers the cataloger to use a specific note field if there is one suitable when inputting specialized note information.

Below are listed those note fields catalogers use most commonly. Though there are others that may prove useful with certain works (such as 508 - Creation/Production Credits Note and 511 - Participant or Performer Note, both useful when cataloging videos or music), I haven’t listed them specifically. If you have additional things/names you want to include in your record, you can find all 48 note fields listed in appendix C.

500 = General notes.

The 500 field is used for all other note information that has no pre-designated place to go. There are no indicators or subfields.

You can list here anything you think is noteworthy about the book. The following example comes from a Master’s Thesis about the Catholic mission schools on the Crow reservation, where the author dug up documents that are very difficult to find.

Example: 500 Includes an excellent list of notes for the sources used (p.181-222).

This is also the field to use if some of the data you included in the other fields came from other source than the “officially approved” ones.

Example: 500 Title from cover.

502 = Thesis note.

List here if the work is some sort of thesis. There are no indicators or subfields.

Example: 502 Thesis (PhD)—Podunk University, 1995.

504 = Bibliography etc. note.

This is where you can make a note about the references and/or indices included in the work. There are no indicators or subfields.

Example: 504 Includes bibliographical references and index.

505 = Formatted contents note.

The 505 field is a good tool to let your users see what the book is about. You have two choices for the first indicator (= type of contents note). Use 0 if you are listing the entire contents and 2 if you only cover part of the contents. There is no second indicator and no sub-fields.

Note: Since you are not required to list the entire contents, you can write down only those chapters that are relevant to your users. In the example below, the book in question - Early fur trade on the Northern Plains – has accounts by various traders dealing with several tribes. Since our students would most likely be looking for information about the impressions the traders had about the Crow, I only listed the two chapters that dealt with that topic.

Example: 505 2 Francois-Antoine Larocque’s “Yellowstone Journal” -- A few observations on the Rocky Mountain Indians with whom I passed the summer [of 1805] -- Charles Mackenzie’s narratives.

Note: If the content is extremely lengthy, try to pick out those topics that you think would be of greatest interest to your patrons.

Additional Fields for Other Items

As mentioned earlier, you need to fill some additional fields and subfields for other items than books.

For anything else than a book in the 245 field, the medium or General Material Designation (GMD) follows the title proper in subfield |h. It is enclosed in brackets.

Example: 245 10 Old Man Coyote stories |h[videorecording] :|b their function in Crow culture /|c speech by Sargie Old Horn with an introduction by Tim Bernardis.

Terms which may be used as GMDs are listed in the table below. For materials for the visually impaired, add (large print) or (tactile), when appropriate, to any term in list. Add (braille), when appropriate, to any term other than braille or text.

... [cartographic material (tactile)]

... [music (braille)]

... [text (large print)]

The main differences from book tagging for CDs and videos, besides the subfield |h, are summarized below:

sound recording
activity cardart originalart reproductionbraillecartographic material
Chartdioramaelectronic resourcefilmstripflash card
Gamekitmanuscriptmicroformmicroscope slide
Slidetexttoytechnical drawing

Sometimes the title on the container is different from the title proper. You can list this information in 246 field (varying form of title) using subfield |i = display text.

Example: 245 00 Before the rain|h[videorecording] :|b(a tale in three parts) /|cUniversal ; Aim Productions, Noé Productions and Vardar Film

246 1 |iTitle on container:|aBefore the rain a film by Milcho Manchevski

The physical description (300 tag) changes to physically describe the audiovisual material, including playing time and the dimensions.

Example: 300 1 CD-ROM (~ 63 min.) :|bcolor ;|c4 3/4 in.

The 300 tag often contains a subfield |e for describing accompanying material such as a teacher’s guide.

Example: 300 2 videocassettes (VHS) (37 min.) :|bsd., col. ;|c1/2 in. +|e1 guide.

You can include a short description of the accompanying material if you wish.

Example: 300 1 videodisc (113 min.) :|bsd., col. ;|c4 3/4 in. +|e1 booklet ([12] p. ; col. ill. ; 19 cm.)

In the notes area several special tags are used. The ones listed below are the most typical.

Field 538 (system details note) is the place for technical information about the item, such as the recording system.

Example: 538 DVD; Region 1, NTSC; Dolby Digital surround; widescreen presentation, aspect ratio 1.78:1, enhanced for 16:9 televisions; new restored high-definition digital transfer; new and improved English subtitle translation. Field 511(participant or performer note) contains the names of the participants, players, narrators, presenters, or performers.

Example: 511 0 Narrator: Sargie Old Horn.

Field 508 (creation/production credits note) includes the names of persons (other than cast) who participated in the production of the work.

Example: 508 Music, Joe Fire Crow.

All the performer names and other names mentioned in the work in addition to author, should also be listed in the 700 field (added entry – personal name) with subfield |e for relator term (what the person did). See the section on added entry fields for a source of official relator terms.

Example: 700 1 Old Horn, Sargie|enarration.
700 1 Fire Crow, Joe|emusician.

The general note field (= 500) is used liberally for additional cataloging information.

Example: 500 American Indian Tribal Histories Project Director: Francine Bear Don’t Walk.

This applies to items that are made up of two or more components, two or more of which belong to distinct material types (e.g., a sound recording and a printed text).

If an item has one predominant component, describe it in terms of that component and give details of the subsidiary component(s) as accompanying material following the physical description (300 field).

Example: 300 47 slides : col. ; 5 × 5 cm. + 1 sound cassette Give details of accompanying material in one of the following ways:

To catalog an article from a magazine, the following fields differ from those for a book:

Note: In describing an article, use the data relating to the article in all areas except the note area and the 773 (= host item entry field).

Put the title of the article you are cataloging into the 245 (= title statement).

Example: 245 14 The Crow Constitution :|ba breeding ground for division /|cAudrey Black Eagle.

Publication information (= 260). The whole entry is put inside brackets.

Example: 260 [Crow Agency, Mont. :|bLittle Big Horn College,|c1994.]

The physical description field (= 300) is used to describe information about the article, not the host magazine. Start with the page numbers the article covers, followed by any pertinent information about illustrations, then add the height of the magazine (in cm).

Example: 300 p.2-3 :|bill., ; 45 cm.

You list the information about the magazine in a note in the general note field (= 500).

Example: 500 Published in Voices, Spring 1994.

Add a local note into 590 field repeating the information about the host item. This is the note field which shows in the basic search and helps the student realize that he is trying to find a magazine with the article in it. The fuller note from 500 field only shows if he opens the “catalog record” tab.

Example: 590 Article in Voices, Spring 1994.

Finally you list the host item information (title, volume, and number) in the 773 field (host item entry). Use subfield |t for the title of the magazine, subfield |g for listing the volume and the date.

Example: 773 |tVoices|gSpring 1994.

Follow the instructions for creating a cataloging record for an article for the most part.

In describing a facsimile, photocopy, or other reproduction of printed texts, maps, manuscripts, printed music, and graphic items, give the data relating to the facsimile, etc., in all areas except the note area.

Give data relating to the original in the general note (= 500 field) area.

Example: 500 Printed from the internet site:

Example: 500 From Journal of Navajo Education, v. 10, no. 1, 1992 (Fall).

Add a reproduction note in the 533 field. Subfields: |a lists the type of reproduction i.e. photocopy, |b has the information about the place where the reproduction was made, |c the agency responsible for the reproduction, |d the date of reproduction, and |e the physical description of the reproduction. Make sure to list the actual number of pages you have in your copied item. This may be different from the number of pages in the actual article, as you may have a title page that shows the title of the magazine etc. Also, list the size of the actual paper it was copied on (= 28 cm if you copied it on a regular 8x11 sheet).

Note: there is a period after the type, as well as the responsible agency.

Example: 533 Photocopy.|bCrow Agency. Mont. :|cLittle Big Horn College.|d2009|e1 leaf ; 28 cm.

Note: You do not fill out a 590 or 773 when the item is copied from somewhere. Instead you list the source of the reproduction in the 730 field (= added entry – uniform title). The first indicator is for the number of non-filing characters, the second is usually blank for “no information provided”.

Example: 730 0 Journal of Navajo Education.

The distinguishing features of a map are the unique gmd and the scale. Follow the instructions below to record these correctly.

Use cartographic material as the gmd.

Statement of scale: give the scale of a cartographic item as a representative fraction expressed as a ratio (1: ). Precede the ratio by Scale.

Give the scale even if it is already recorded as part of the title proper or other title information.

245 = Title statement

Use subfield |h for the gmd, then include the scale if it is part of the title.

Example: 245 10 Hardin, Montana [cartographic material] :|b1:100 000-scale metric topographic map /|cproduced by the United States Geological Survey.

255 = Cartographic mathematical data (R).

Subfield |a in this field contains the statement of scale. Both indicators are undefined.

Example: 255 Scale 1:100 000

In field 300 use subfield |c to record the actual size of the map.

Example: 300 1 map :|bcol. ;|c61 x 112 cm.

Use field 490 to record the series (such as 7.5 minute series : topographic). First indicator is most commonly 0 (= series not traced). Second indicator is undefined.

Example: 490 0 30x60 minute series : topographic

Use the 500 general note field to include any additional facts about the map.

Example: 500 Contours and elevations in meters.

500 Includes location map and index to adjoining maps.



If you only need a token summary, you can just skim through the book to get a basic idea of what it is about. Then compose a concise summary to let your students know what they can expect from it. This will help them decide whether it’s worth checking out.

520 = Summary etc., note.

There are no indicators or subfields.

Example: 520 This book covers many of the religious rituals and ceremonies of Crow Indians; including: sun dance, vision quest, and peyotism.

This is also the first field were our records at Little Big Horn College’s Special Crow collection truly diverge from the norm. Depending on the work, we have created truly exhaustive summaries for some, while other records rely more heavily on the two local index fields (592/593) and local subject headings (690s).

A third group, those books that are the most comprehensive sources of information about the tribe, combines both a long summary, a gazillion 592s and 593s, and as many 690s as applicable.

If you choose to give the work at hand this type of treatment, you have to forget any ideas of “skimming through the book”. You’ll have to read enough of the text so you’ll be able to list all the relevant topics – even if they get minor coverage – in the summary.

Even if you are planning to include a comprehensive list of subjects in the local index field and local subject headings, you need to write a detailed enough summary to help a student pull it all together. An effective summary should help your users get a good grasp of what the book as a whole is about.

If you do not intend to include local indices, you should be able to do a detailed summary by reading the preface, the introduction, as well as the conclusions from start to finish. Adding a thorough perusal of the beginning and ending of each chapter while skimming the rest, is usually enough to let a user know all significant points of the work.

Note: Do not rely on other people’s evaluation of the content. The publicity blurbs in the back cover were chosen to help sell the book and more often than not consist of a few catchy phrases and very little substance. Even if you only write a short summary, read portions of the book yourself so you know what you are talking about.

Note: Take careful notes of what you read, paying particular attention to the subjects covered. Once you do enough of these, your local subject heading list becomes so familiar that you will automatically recognize each topic in the work that fits one of the headings. Until then it will help to keep a printed list of the headings with you when reading as a reference. Each time you encounter a different topic you can consult your list and check it off. Record all potential subjects for the time when you will be choosing your main subject heading as well as the additional local ones.

Note: Once you have created your notes, the best way to proceed is to type them up in Word so you can use spell check to remove any typos (one can always hope), before you enter your record into the catalog. Then just copy and paste. If you are using Work Flows: pasting in any of the “odd characters” – such as dashes, quotation marks, apostrophes etc. – will not paste right. They will all turn into question marks by the time you reopen the record. The only way around this is to retype those characters in once the record has been entered.

In our collection, those items that receive the most thorough summaries are works that deal with only a few main topics, but cover them in great detail. In such a case, the number of useful index terms and local subject headings can be quite limited, thus the user needs a more detailed summary to convey the book’s content. A good example of this is Timothy McCleary’s “A handbook for oral history research on the Crow Indian reservation”. [See appendix D for a complete record.]

The book explains how to conduct such research, what to expect from the people you interview, and the proper etiquette for dealing with your subjects from the Crow cultural standpoint. Since the topic is rather concise, there are only a limited number of categories for the local subject index and for the local subject headings. However, the topic is of considerable importance to any researcher interested in working with the Crow, thus the work deserves a detailed summary of its contents to facilitate the understanding of the needs and cultural sensitivity such an undertaking requires.

Example: portion of the summary for McCleary’s Handbook

520 Most Crow people are bilingual, though many prefer to speak Crow and to follow Crow customs and beliefs. Their kinship system is complex, with the relatives on the mother’s side providing for the emotional and physical needs of the individual, while those on the father’s side are expected to provide the religious training and social recognition of the individual. Crows convey the moral, ethical, and behavioral expectations of their culture through narratives. From these stories, traditionally told during long winter nights, Crow children learn what is expected of them in life and how they might achieve their desires. 520 Crow people have two types of narratives: baaeechichiwaau = re-telling a story and baleechiweetaale = telling something witnessed. The first kind includes stories about events in the distant past; myths and legends. The second category narratives are regarded as factual and reference specific knowledge, events and/or people.

520 The techniques used in the telling of the stories is easy to recognize. When the person has not actually witnessed the story (as in ‘re-telling stories’) the narrator uses the term “huuk” = “they say”, lengthens appropriate words, and repeats key points. The teller may also incorporate Crow words (when relating the story in English) either for emphasis, to explain Crow philosophy, or simply because he doesn’t know the appropriate English word.

520 Though following the rules of common courtesy will make the interview process more enjoyable, the Crow have some additional customs that are worth noting. They are usually reserved, especially around strangers and the women should not talk with strangers. They allow a person to conclude his remarks before others speak and consider a silence part of acceptable communication. They find both prolonged eye contact and physical touching (other than handshaking) inappropriate, though children are afforded much attention. If you find only members of the opposite sex present upon your arrival you should reschedule and leave immediately. It is improper for a woman of any age be alone with men, even her own adult son. The sexes often sit separately when eating and rarely converse during meals. They will offer all they have at the meal, so don’t ask for something else or more of something which has already been eaten.

Note: As you can see in the example above, each paragraph in the summary has to be entered as a separate 520 field. It does make the final record in the catalog look a bit odd, but that is a better choice than turning the entire summary into one immensely long paragraph.



We created these two fields to provide our students with online access points to all the Crow content of a given work.

If you plan to include these fields in your catalog, combine this work with the creation of the summary as well as the local subject headings.

As you read along, write down any relevant sentences you come across. Your aim is to extract every concept that deals with the main subject you are interested in – in our case at LBHC the Crow Indians.

You will have to read the book from cover to cover, noting down all the relevant names, topics, and page numbers as you go along. The best way to go about this is to get a good note book, pencil, a list of “categories” for your 593s (our current list is included in Appendix E) as well as your local subject heading list (690s). You can see ours for reference in Appendix F.

Example: striking an enemy was a high ranking deed, p.4. Since the Crow used various war deeds (called coups) as a way of measuring a warrior’s worth, we created a category in the 593 field for them. Thus the final entry in the catalog will read: Coups: striking an enemy was a high ranking deed, p.4.

If some fact is listed with the name of an observer, we list the entire sequence as a 593 rather than separating the name into 592 and the observation into 593. Except when the name is mentioned for the 1st time, it goes to 592 as well. Example: Assimilation: Crows seemed to have a deep-rooted prejudice against adopting the white man’s culture according to agent Wright (1874), p.300. Same logic applies to any stories told by someone mentioned by name or a person’s opinions about a certain topic.

Example: Story: origin of the War Dance by Marlene Walking Bear, p.105-106.

Example: Allotments: Plenty Coups on allotments, p.139.

This practice helps to cut down on the number of entries/page numbers in the 592 field. It also makes it easier to locate those portions of the text where someone made a personal comment or told a story.

We use this field to list every Crow name and the page it appears in the text.

You should also include any explanation for the name, if there is something in the text that makes the name important, such as the person’s occupation or relationship to the interviewee or someone well known in the tribe. This helps the user place the names in proper context.

Example: Little Boy Strikes With a Lance (Pretty Shield’s paternal grandfather), p.5.

Example: Littlenest (brother of chief Medicine Crow), p.ix.

Example: Curley (scout), p.xiii, 209, 248, 250, 253-254.

We also include other than Crow names if they are historically important to the Crow (some trappers who lived with them, religious people who worked on the reservation, government people who worked on the reservation etc.).

Example: Meldrum, Robert (factor at Fort Sarpy who was married to a Crow), p.103, 112.

Note: Because Indians often were known by several names, it is important that you include some sort of common “denominator” in your index field for those names that fall into this category. For example the Crow had a chief commonly known as Rotten Belly. In other works he is referred to as Sore Belly. He is also known in Crow as Arapooish, Arapooash, or Eelápuash. The last one being the correct form of the Crow version. To ensure that the student searching for information about this chief will find all relevant sources, we always list the name used in the work in question as the first choice in the 592 field, followed by at least Eelápuash (the common denominator). Often one or more of the other names is also included. Thus anyone looking under one of the names will be able to plug in Eelápuash as their next search term and find the rest of the works that mention him.

Example: 592 Sore Belly (= Eelápuash, also called Rotten Belly), p.7, 37-38, biography p.44-45.

Note: Some time the actual name of the person is prefaced by “the”, for example a Crow chief called Wet might be referred to as either Wet or The Wet. In the latter case, we invert the name, so that it’s easier to locate in the final list of 592s.

Example: Wet, The (Crow chief), p.57.

Note: Because the 592 and 593 fields are specifically created to serve your patrons, you can add any information into the record you feel could be handy. There are no official rules to dictate either the order of words or the number of them. Try to be concise, but do include enough information to make the entry useful.

Once you have compiled a list of all the names in the book run it through the alphabetizing gizmo in Word. This will help you eliminate any duplicate mentions of the same name and make your final 592 list a lot easier for your patrons to navigate.

592 = Local name index note.

This is what the 592 field should end up looking like:

Example: 592 fields

Arm Around the Neck, p.188.

Armstrong, Henry (Indian agent), p.15, 17.

Back Of the Neck family, p.184.

Bandini, Father, p.201-202.

Barcelo, Father, p.198-201.

Bear Claw, Hartford, p.333.

Bear In the Water, p.22, 24.

Bear Tooth (chief), p.90-91.

Bears Head (River Crow warrior), p.81.

Bell Rock, p.214, 220, 248, 251.

Bellrock, Emma, p.216.

Bethune, Frank, p.219-220, 319.

Big Day, Annie, p.216.

Big Medicine (head of tribal police), p.180, 220, 236, 240-242, 248, 253, 261, 287-

288, 316.

Big Ox (River Crow leader), p.82, 236.

Big Robber (=Robert, leader of the Kicked in the Bellies), p.83, 86-88.

Bird Without a Cloud, p.297.

Blackfoot (chief of Mountain Crows), p.83-84, 89-92, 101-102, 106, 108.

For complete records that include the 592 field, check out appendix D.

Use this to list all the subjects the book mentions that might be of interest to the students. For our library at Little Big Horn College these are mostly things that relate to Crows directly – such as any mentions of various rituals, battles, trading patterns etc. But this also includes things that are only mentioned once and in just this book, such as the picture of Yellowtail during his inauguration.

You need to list them all and put in the page numbers – this is what makes the books in the special Crow collection so easy to search. Even if you have a person listed under 592, but he appears later in the book as part of the account, doing or saying something relevant, list him in 593 and explain what he was doing instead of just putting down that particular page number after his name in 592. See the treatment of Cold Wind in the example below. His name was mentioned on pages 9, 18, and 19, so those are listed as 592s. On those pages listed in 593 fields he was telling a story that covered the given page numbers. Thus we offer the user three choices: he can look up all references about Cold Wind in this book, he can locate the stories told by him, or he can just find those pages where his name is mentioned.


592 Cold Wind, p.9, 18-19.

593 Story: why there are small strings on moccasin heels by Cold Wind, p.139- 166.

593 Tobacco Ceremony: its origin by Cold Wind, p.11.

To make searching the subject index easier, we decided to “categorize” the entries. This resembles the task of coming up with subject headings, but is much more detailed and flexible. For example: there is an LC subject heading for Indians of North America – Agriculture. Because one of the major assimilation efforts of the whites was centered on the idea of turning the Indians into farmers, many of the works in our collection have numerous references to topics that can be listed under this heading. Since the number of categories for the 593 field is unlimited, we divided the topic agriculture into several sub-topics, each forming its own category. Thus we have the following categories all dealing with some facet of Crow Indians - Agriculture:






As you jot down your entries for each page, try to place them into their appropriate categories. This will make the alphabetizing a lot easier in the end. Don’t worry if you can’t think of one that fits while you are writing them down. Just leave that one without a category and move onto your next topic. When you are all done, do the alphabetizing. Read through the list you have created and think about each entry to make sure it is in the category that suits it best. Most of the time I switch at least some of them around, realizing that the topic I had consigned under White-Crow relations is really better suited for Assimilation for example.

At the same time you can take a second look at those topics you didn’t categorize at all. Most of them will probably fit under something you have already listed in your category list, if not you can always create a new category to suit your needs. If the topic is unlikely to ever appear again, you can just leave it in the list without a category.

Note: When you are formulating your categories you might want to follow the guidelines LC has set for subject headings about singular vs. plural forms. According to their general rule, you should use the plural form when establishing topical headings that designate entities capable of being enumerated. Use the singular form when establishing topical headings that designate abstract concepts.

Example: Plural Singular

Dams Art

Scouts Assimilation

Societies Irrigation

593 = Local subject index note.

Example: 593 fields

Assimilation: Crow assimilation efforts by the whites of the 1920s, p.45-46, 48-49, 76-78

Bands: Beaver Dries Its Fur, a division of Crow lost during the migration, p.37-38.

Bands: Kicked in the Bellies, p.39.

Bands: locations of the three Crow bands on the reservation today, p.43.

Buffalo: role of buffalo in Crow economy, p.35-37, 44.

Clans: joking relatives, p.40.

Clans: role of the father’s clan, p.40.

Clans: the Crow clans, p.39-40.

Coups: p.41.

Dams: Building the Yellowtail Dam, p.55.

Farming: farming and the Crow, p.79.

Hidatsa-Crow separation: quarrel over buffalo, p.32-33.

Language: Crow terms for the Christian concept of God, p.73.

Laws: Crow Allotment Act of 1920, p.45, 75-76.

Little Big Horn College: p.10.

Maps: map of districts, communities, and independent Pentecostal churches on the reservation, p.60.

Migrations: Crow migrations, p.32-34.

Name: term “Crow”, p.14.

Oral tradition: Crow oral tradition, p.9-10.

Religion: Aimee McPherson and Crow Pentecostalists, p.20-21.



When done right, cataloging provides full access to a library’s collection. The multiple access points created by descriptive cataloging offer an easy way to locate all the items in a library based on physical facts about the work. However, this approach completely ignores the intellectual content of the work. To include this information in your cataloging record, you need to list all appropriate subject headings.

The purpose of subject cataloging is to let the user know what the library has on a given subject. The more comprehensive your local subject heading list is, the greater the probability that your students will be able to discover every item in your collection that even briefly mentions any given topic. Many books about Native Americans include at least some historic background regardless of the main theme(s). Carefully examining the work for all possible topics will guide your users to works they would never have looked at without your efforts of rooting out all relevant subthemes.

Most cataloging instructions tell you to come up with “the subject” of the item. Since the call number is derived from the main subject heading, it is important to give considerable thought to the overriding theme of the work. Library of Congress simply tells you to choose the heading that represents the predominant topic of the work as the first subject heading. If this cannot be done by using a single heading, assign as the first and second headings those two that, taken together, express the predominant topic.

Note: Try to define the main topic as accurately as possible. Avoid such broad categories as “history” if at all possible. After all, practically anything that happened before today qualifies as history. By all means list history as one of your subtopics, but spend some time reading the book to see what particular aspect of history is its main focus. Maybe it concentrates on battles fought with enemy tribes, in which case you can go with warfare as your 650 then add intertribal warfare as one of the 690s.

Sometimes things are simple and the main subject is obvious from one glance at the title. Such is the case with many biographies.

Example: Linderman’s classic work on the Crow chief Plenty Coups. Here the title pretty much says it all: Plenty-coups, chief of the Crows . Though the book covers numerous subtopics, its principal focus is the life of the well-known chief. In such a case you can simply proceed to list the authorized version of the subject’s name in the 600 field: Plenty Coups,|cChief of the Crows,|d1848-1932

and put in a 650 Crow Indians|xChiefs|vBiography. You can then go ahead and add any subtopics as local subject headings.

Example: In ideal cases determining the main subject is that obvious, but in real life things are seldom ideal. If you are unlucky the title can actually lead you astray. Case in point: Jonathan Lear’s Radical hope, ethics in the face of cultural devastation.

Partial record [original]:

Title: Radical hope : ethics in the face of cultural devastation / Jonathan Lear.

Subject term [650]: Ethics.

Subject term [650]: Social change.

Subject term [650]: Social sciences and ethics.

Subject term [650]: Crow Indians--Social life and customs.

The first part of the title is a non-starter – it doesn’t give you any hints for a possible subject heading. Reading on you may surmise that cataloging the book under the LC subject term ethics is a plausible choice. That was obviously the assumption of the cataloger who submitted the record for this work to OCLC.

If you spend some time perusing the book, you can’t help but realize that it isn’t really about ethics per se. Rather it describes one tribe’s way of coping with the abrupt, disastrous end to the only way of life it had ever known. The second subject heading - social change – is much closer to the content.

From the Crow view point, however, the main theme of the book is the enduring qualities of their customs and how these changed over time to accommodate the very different reality of life on a reservation. Thus the subject heading Crow Indians--Social life and customs seems by far the most informative to the reader. On the other hand, given that these changes were forced upon the tribe by the white government in their effort to “civilize the Indians”, an equally acceptable term to describe the book would be the subject heading: Crow Indians|xCultural assimilation.

To add to the confusion, Dr. Lear approaches this turning point in the life of the tribe through the visions of chief Plenty Coups. How his visions, and the interpretation the tribal elders ascribed them, gave the Crows a clear notion of a way to accommodate the coming changes in order for the tribe to endure. If you read the book, you’ll notice that the chief is mentioned on well over 80 percent of the pages. Looking at the book from that angle, one could almost justify in calling it a biography as well. However, it is obvious that this is not meant as a biography, so the smart thing to do is to go with the two subject headings listed above and enter the chief’s name as a 600 – subject added entry.

Radical hope is a good example of how difficult it can be to come up with “the subject”. Luckily you can get around the LC rule (it really is more of a recommendation) that you limit yourself to no more than 6 subject headings by consigning most of the minor topics to local subject headings (690s). My approach is to list one to three LC subject headings in the 650 field, followed by every topic under the sun that I can find as a local subject heading. Even those titles that seem to shed some light into the work are seldom sufficient to determine what it really is about. A case in point is Peter Nabokov’s thesis on the unique Tobacco Ceremony of the Crows.

Partial record [original]:

Cultivating themselves : the inter-play of Crow Indian religion and history / Peter Nabokov.

Subject term [650]: Indians of North America--Montana--History.

Local subject [690]: Crow Indians--Religion.Mythology.

Local subject [690]: Crow Indians--Tobacco use. [Tobacco pipes. Smoking.]

Local subject [690]: Crow Indians--Rites and ceremonies.

This is a huge Ph.D. thesis that would intimidate most readers right off the bat. And the cataloger chose the easy way out by dumping it under the aforementioned catch-all of history, probably because the author included the word in the title. Not likely to move your average student to go to the trouble of pulling the tome off the shelf to find out if it could be of any use.

The first local topic listed is religion. Though you can use this subject heading to list a wide variety of topics, including (according to LC) creation, future life, katcinas, occultism, revivalism, rites and ceremonies, shamanism, etc., there is no need for that in this case. LC has a separate heading for rites and ceremonies – which the cataloger did put down as her third choice. Since the main topic in the thesis is the Tobacco Ceremony, that subject heading should have been the first one on the list. I would have picked it as the main (650) heading instead of the history one.

Hoping to impress on the students that the work deserves a second look, I wrote an exhaustive summary. It highlights the information on the various aspects of Crow culture the thesis contains, especially the vision quest and its ties to Crow tribal origins/migration. Nabokov includes a careful analysis of the reasons Crows have always placed such high regard in the vision quest, pages of scholarly perspectives on it, as well as his own interpretation on it. Yet the original cataloging record didn’t even mention this theme as a subtopic!

As you can see the original cataloging record was sadly lacking in useful information. Not only did I write the summary, I created a thorough subject index, added two more main subject headings to reflect the content a bit more accurately then increased the number of local subject headings from 4 to 36! You can find the complete record in appendix D.

List of subject headings in the original catalog record:

Main subject headings (LC)

650 Indians of North America--Montana--History.

Local subjects (690s):

Crow Indians--Religion. Mythology.

Crow Indians--Tobacco use. [Tobacco pipes. Smoking.]

Crow Indians--Rites and ceremonies.

Crow Indians--History.

My version:

Main subject headings (LC)

650 Indians of North America--Montana--History.

650 Crow Indians—Rites and ceremonies.

650 Crow Indians--Societies.

Local subject headings (690s)

Crow Indians--Traditional values.

Crow Indians--Cultural assimilation.

Crow Indians--Acculturation.

Crow Indians--Tobacco society.

Crow Indians--Religion and mythology.

Crow Indians--Tobacco use.

Crow Indians--Sun Dance.

Crow Indians--Vision quest, visions.

Crow Indians--Medicine. Medicine-men.

Crow Indians--Sweat lodge ritual.

Crow Indians--Government relations.

Crow Indians--Social life and customs.

Crow Indians--History.

Crow Indians--Creation story.

Crow Indians--Migration story.

Crow Indians--Art.

Crow Indians--Beadwork.

Crow Indians--Bands.

Crow Indians--Mountain Crow.

Crow Indians--River Crow.

Crow Indians--Buffalo.

Crow Indians--Clan role.

Crow Indians--Children.

Crow Indians--Chronology.

Crow Indians--Dance.

Crow Indians--Diseases.

Crow Indians--Economic conditions.

Crow Indians--Embroidery.

Crow Indians--Employment.

Crow Indians--Ethnic identity.

Crow Indians--Folklore.

Crow Indians--Legends.

Crow Indians--Food.

Crow Indians--Horses.

Crow Indians--Kinship.

Crow Indians--Songs and music.

Crow Indians--Population.

As you can see the difference is enormous.

Note: You can replace “Indians of North America” with the name of your tribe, and still list the heading as an acceptable 650.

Example: 650 Indians of North America|xDance. = 650 Crow Indians|xDance.

Note: Remember that all of your 650s have to otherwise conform to LC subject headings.

Subject Entry fields [6XX fields]

Fields 600-65X (with the exception of field 653 that is used for uncontrolled index terms) contain subject headings or access terms that provide additional access to a bibliographic record through a heading or term that is constructed according to established subject cataloging or thesaurus-building principles and guidelines.

Following is a list of the most commonly used subject entry fields [see appendix C for all 6XX fields]:

600 - Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R)

610 - Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R)

611 - Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R)

650 - Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R)

651 - Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R)

Full descriptions of the first indicator and all subfield codes, as well as how to input your data for the X00, X10, X11, and X30 fields, are given in appendix C in the section about explanations for indicators (including source codes for 2nd indicators) and subfield codes with guidelines for application. The second indicator is described in the specific section for each field.

600 = Person as a subject [= Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R)].

This is where you list the name(s) of people who are central in the book; such as the person whose biography the book is etc.

Use same format as for the author [100 field] surname first > first indicator = 1. 2nd indicator tells where you got the spelling of the name. If the book deals with the Crows, your most common second indicator would be 4 = source not specified. If you used LC authorized form it would be 0.

Most commonly used subfields: obviously the first subfield is the name of the person. Subfield |c = titles and other words associated with a name. |d = dates associated with a name.

Example: 600 14 Springfield, Edwin Thomas.

Example: 600 00 Plenty Coups,|cChief of the Crows,|d1848-1932.

610 = Corporate name as a subject [= Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R)].

This is where you list the name of a corporation (such as your college name) if it is the main subject of the work at hand.

The indicators are same as for the 110 field, meaning 2 = name in direct order. 2nd indicator tells where you got the spelling of the name. 0 once again meaning the name conforms to the LCSH and name authority files. The subfields are the same as for the 600 field.

Example: 610 20 Little Big Horn College.

650 = Topic as a subject.

This is where you list the appropriate subject headings you get from LC. If you choose a subject heading from another source, you need to use a different first indicator. For a complete list of choices see p.73-79 in appendix C. The first one listed is the one you chose as your main subject heading = the one you use to give the work its call number.

1st indicator is usually 0 = LC subject heading.

Note: After you enter the first part of your subject heading (the one that tells the user what/who the item deals with), such as Indians of North America, Crow Indians or whatever you choose, you need to follow it with more detailed information. This is called the subject subdivision portion, and includes the following options:

Subject subdivision portion [the actual topic] - for the 6XX fields

|v - Form subdivision (R) [600]

|x - General subdivision (R) [600]

|y - Chronological subdivision (R) [600]

|z - Geographic subdivision (R) [600]

Most commonly used is the |x, which comprises almost the entire list of local subject headings for the Crow Indians.

Example: 650 0 Indians of North America|xRites and ceremonies.

Note: There is no space before or after the |x and the information that follows. Also, the subject heading ends with a period.

Note: Pay attention to the subfield code designators. Rarely the same letter can mean different things depending on the field it is used.

Example: |v subfield in the 800 field refers to volume of the work, while in the 600 field it refers to "form subdivision" which you can use to show that the work in question is poetry or a handbook or juvenile literature etc.

651 = Place as subject.

No 1st indicator. 2nd indicator usually 0 = LC subject heading system. Commonly contains the following subfields: |a = Geographic name, |x = Topic, |y = years the work covers. [No |a in OMNI!]

Example: 651 0 Montana|xHistory|y1805-1900.

This is also where you would list works that deal with your reservation as a topic.

Example: 651 0 Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana|xBoundaries.

Example: 651 0 Crow Indian Reservation |zMontana |vJuvenile literature.

Example: 651 0 Crow Indian Reservation |zMontana|vMaps.

690 = Local subject headings.

When we want to make it easier for the students to realize that the work deals with some specific areas of the Crow life, we use the list of local subject headings. These are headings that are strictly for our library and generally make the title easier to find. We include as many of them as seems appropriate. A good example is the Sun Dance. Closest LOC subject heading is: Indians of North America|xRites and ceremonies. You can always replace Indians of North America with Crow Indians and still call it a 650. But if you want to be more specific and put in “Sun Dance”, the entry has to go into 690: Crow Indians|xSun Dance.

Try to list all possible local subject headings. Commonly the book might have one main topic, but it may include bits of information on many different aspects of Crow life; such as kinship, dress, economic conditions etc. as well. Even if those are mentioned only briefly, you should list them.

You can use the list of local subject headings we created for this purpose as a starting point.

Example: 690 Crow Indians|xCoups.

Example: 690 Crow Indians|xClan role.

Added entries provide additional access to a bibliographic record from names and/or titles which have various relationships to the work. Added entries are made for persons, corporate bodies, and meetings having some form of responsibility for the creation of the work, including intellectual and publishing responsibilities.

The following four are the most commonly used added entry fields:

700 - Added Entry--Personal Name (R)

710 - Added Entry--Corporate Name (R)

711 - Added Entry--Meeting Name (R)

720 - Added Entry--Uncontrolled Name (R)

700 = Person as added entry.

Added entry in which the entry element is a personal name.

This is where you list the additional authors if there is more than 1 [and the names come from known sources].

Use the same format as for the author [100 field] surname first > first indicator = 1.

Second Indicator - type of added entry: Left blank - no information provided, most common.

Added entries are assigned according to various cataloging rules to give access to the bibliographic record from personal name headings which may not be more appropriately assigned as 600 (Subject Added Entry-Personal Name) or 800 (Series Added Entry-Personal Name) fields.


100 0 Linderman, Frank Bird, |d1869-1938.

240 10 American.

245 10 Plenty-coups, chief of the Crows /|cFrank B. Linderman ; with a new, previously unpublished essay by the author ; introduction by Barney Old Coyote, Jr. and Phenocia Bauerle ; afterword, map, and glossary by Timothy P. McCleary.

250 New ed.

260 Lincoln :|bUniversity of Nebraska Press,|cc2002.

300 xxviii, 194 p., [10] p. of plates :|bill., map ;|c21 cm.

500 Principally an autobiographical account told to F.B. Linderman.

600 00 Plenty Coups,|cChief of the Crows,|d1848-1932.

700 1 Linderman, Frank Bird,|d1869-1938.

700 1 Old Coyote, Barney |4aui = author of introduction

700 1 Bauerle, Phenocia |4aui = author of introduction

700 1 McCleary, Timothy P. |4aft = author of afterword

Note: OMNI catalogers should spell the relator terms out.

710 = Added Entry--Corporate Name (R).


245 00 Vision, space, desire :|bglobal perspectives and cultural hybridity.

260 Washington, D.C. :|bNational Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution,|cc2006.

500 Proceedings of a conference held in Venice, Italy, Dec. 2005.

650 0 Indigenous art|vCongresses.

710 2 National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)

711 = Added Entry--Meeting Name (R).


245 00 Telling the stories :|bessays on American Indian literatures and cultures /|cedited by Elizabeth Hoffman Nelson & Malcolm A. Nelson.

500 The essays in this collection were given at the 1997 American Culture Association’s meeting in San Antonio, Texas"--Pref.

650 0 American literature|xIndian authors|xHistory and criticism.

700 1 Nelson, Elizabeth Hoffman,|d1965-

700 1 Nelson, Malcolm A.|q(Malcolm Antony)

711 2 American Culture Association.|bMeeting|d(1997 :|cSan Antonio, Tex.)

720 = Added Entry--Uncontrolled Name (R).

Added entry in which the name is not controlled in an authority file or list. It is also used for names that have not been formulated according to cataloging rules. Names may be of any type (e.g., personal, corporate, meeting). Used when one of the other access fields (e.g., 1XX (Headings) or 7XX (Added Entries)) cannot be used because the level of control and/or structure of the name does not meet the requirements of the other access fields.

This is a field you may want to use for those names you do not want to list in the local name index [592 fields]. You can include all those names that have no “official” form = the name is not listed in an authority file.

This field can also be used for names that have not been formulated according to cataloging rules. Names may be of any type (e.g., personal, corporate, meeting).

First indicator refers to the type of the name. Most often you would use 0, meaning you don’t know what type of name it is or a 1, meaning it’s a personal name. Second indicator is undefined.

The most common subfield codes are:

|a - Name (NR) [leave|a out in OMNI]

|e - Relator term (R)

|4 - Relator code (R)

See appendix C for more information about the 720 field (with lots of examples), including a short list of the most common relator terms/codes as well as where to find the rest of them.


100 0 Linderman, Frank Bird, |d1869-1938.

240 10 American.

245 10 Plenty-coups, chief of the Crows /|cFrank B. Linderman ; with a new, previously unpublished essay by the author ; introduction by Barney Old Coyote, Jr. and Phenocia Bauerle ; afterword, map, and glossary by Timothy P. McCleary.

250 New ed.

260 Lincoln :|bUniversity of Nebraska Press,|cc2002.

300 xxviii, 194 p., [10] p. of plates :|bill., map ;|c21 cm.

500 Principally an autobiographical account told to F.B. Linderman.

600 00 Plenty Coups,|cChief of the Crows,|d1848-1932.

700 1 Linderman, Frank Bird,|d1869-1938.

700 1 Old Coyote, Barney |eauthor of introduction.

700 1 Bauerle, Phenocia |eauthor of introduction.

700 1 McCleary, Timothy P. |eauthor of after word.

720 1 Coyote Runs |etranslator.

720 1 Plain Bull |etranslator.



After you go through the process of assigning your book the most fitting subject heading, you need to translate it into the correct call number.

Most academic libraries use Library of Congress Classification (LCC) system, because it is regularly updated to reflect the constantly evolving needs of the scientific community. It was created to be used with LC subject headings which give the most comprehensive coverage to academic topics.

The LC classification system is an alphanumeric system for creation of call numbers. A call number is a subject formula that groups materials by subject categories or classes. Each class is identified by a letter. Classes are broken down into narrower subclasses by adding more letters. The subclasses, in turn, are defined more precisely by numbers. Using the scheme, books on similar topics are grouped together on the shelf, making it easier for your students to browse the library’s holdings on any given topic. For a detailed breakdown of the subject categories, see the Library of Congress Classification Outline (

Below is a breakdown of the portion of Class E that pertains to the Indians of North America – the most commonly used class for works in our library’s Crow collection.

Class E: History of America = the main class for everything to do with American history, including Native American history. In the case of Indians this class is not restricted to history, however. This is where almost all works that deal with any aspects of North American Indians goes.

E = Class

11-143......... America

11-29.......... General

29.......... Elements in the population

31-49.2.......... North America

51-73 Pre-Columbian America. The Indians

75-99 Indians of North America

81-83 Indian wars

98 Indians of North America A-Z

99 Indian tribes and cultures

You can think of a call number as the address of an item within the library; it tells you where the book is located on the shelf. Because the call number is derived from the main subject heading, all works that deal with the same topic end up alongside each other on the shelves. Thus once a student locates one promising title in the catalog and proceeds to the stacks to find it, he/she will be able to pick out additional works on the same topic nearby.

The first section of the call number represents the subject of the book. The second section (after the period) either refers to the rest of the subject heading or author’s name and the last section is the date of publication.

Note: Many libraries divide their books into various collections, depending on the focus of the library’s overall collection development policy. Such collections represent the location of an entire group of works within the library. At LBHC items that contain any information about the Crow or are created by the Crow, belong to either the Special-Crow or the Crow collection. The name of the collection – CROW – is listed on the label before the actual LC call number. Once you have completed the subject portion of the LC Classification, you need to add a Cutter for the main entry = usually the first author’s last name. The class number, which provides for the general classification of an item, needs to be augmented by a Cutter number in order to create a unique call number for the item. This whole process is commonly referred to as Cuttering.


Cutter tables are used to add short representations of names and words to call numbers to make them unique.

Example: E73.S55 2004

E73 represents the subject (mound-builders).

S55 is a Cutter number for the author (Shields).

To add a Cutter, go to the Cutter table in appendix B. Find the first few letters of the author’s surname in the tables. Make sure to pick the right table! Enter the first letter of the last name then add the numbers from the tables next to it for the next 1-3 letters, for example:

Corporate "authors", including conferences, should be treated like personal authors, for example:

Names without an Exact Number

Occasionally there will be no number that fits a name exactly. In that case, use the preceding number. For example: Clinker Alex would be C55 not C65.

Two Names with the Same Number

When two different authors share the same number, add an extra digit to the Cutter number (i.e. F537 for Fisher, Mary and F5374 for Fisher, Morris).

Biographies and Personal Bibliographies

These are treated like any other book (i.e. the Cutter number is based on the author’s last name).

Names with Spaces

Names which have a space within, such as De Camp, should be treated as if there is no space. For example, De Camp would be Cuttered for Decamp, and would be D43.

Names/Titles with Hyphens

Names and titles which are hyphenated, such as Co-workers, should be treated as if there is no hyphen. For example, Co-workers would be Cuttered for coworkers, and would be C69.

Titles Beginning with Years, Numbers, or Symbols

When titles begin with years, numbers, or symbols, spell out the year, number, or symbol and choose the Cutter number as usual, for example:

Work Marks

Basic Procedure

A work mark is used to distinguish different titles by the same author. This is a letter taken from the first key word in the title. Thus:

For some authors, the use of two letters or more for the work mark is necessary. Thus:

Use the non-filing indicators in the MARC record to help decide where the title begins for Cuttering purposes, especially in the case of foreign titles. Similarly there may be, in the same classification, more than one book by the same author whose title begins with the same word (e.g. Zaidenberg’s How to Draw Cartoons and his How to Draw People). Use Z35h for the first book and Z35ho for the second. It may be necessary to use other key words from the title if the work mark would become too long.

Distinguishing Letters and Numbers

The use of zero should be avoided, because it is easily confused with the letter "O". That is why there are no zeros in the tables. A lower-case letter or letters is used for the work mark, rather than a capital letter. If the work mark is the letter "l", capitalize it to avoid confusion with the number "1". If the "L" is the second letter, there is no need to capitalize it (e.g. A123L, B234cl, etc.

Crow collection

(name of collection)

Indians of (LC Class)

North America (LC subclass)

Medicine. Medicine men

(further refinement of subclass)

Wildschut (author)

Year of publication (1975)

Example: The call number for the book “Crow Indian medicine bundles” by Wildschut published in 1975. E98.M4 is the subject (Indians of North America – Medicine. Medicine men), W54 represents the author’s last name (Wildschut), and 1975 is the year of publication.

Original record in OMNI for the above book:

E98.M4W54 1975

Crow Indian medicine bundles / by William Wildschut ; edited by John C. Ewers.

Subject term: Medicine bundles.

Local subject: Crow Indians--Religion.







Little Big Horn College Copy/Material Location

E98.M4W54 1975 2 BOOK Little Big Horn College--Crow Collection


E99.C92W52 1975 1 BOOK Special Collections Terry C. Johnston –

MSU Billings (nocirc)

Chief Dull Knife College

CHE 299 WIL 1975 1 BOOK Dull Knife Special Cheyenne Collection


There is no such subject heading in LC – the closest is Medicine. Medicine men, which is cataloged under the call number E98.M4.

The Cutter number should be: W55 (when you use the expansion of the basic Cutter table, to represent letters i-l you are supposed to use number 5). So the correct call number should be: E98.M4W55 1975.

This is a good example where LBHC is listing something under E98 = either Indians

of North America or at LBHC Crow Indians as the major division of the E class,

then refining that further with the M4 to let the reader know the book deals with

Indian medicine. Whereas in Billings they simply put it under Crow Indians, then

Cuttered in the author: E99 = various Indian tribes, followed by the letter/number

code for Crows C92, and finally the Cutter code for the author.

Finally the call number from Dull Knife shows how the same book could be

cataloged using Dewey.

New record (for LBHC):

E98.M4W55 1975

Subject term: Crow Indians|xMedicine. Medicine men.



Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition, 2002 revision. A detailed set of standardized rules for cataloging various types of library materials. Divided into two parts: rules for creting the bibliogrpahic description and rules governing the choice and form of entry of headings (access points) in the catalog.
Access Point
Those portions of a bibliographic record under which a user can search for an item in that catalog. Within an automated system, virtually any portion of a library catalog record can conceivably be used as an access point, or search term.
Added Entry
An entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalog. (e.g. name added entry, title added entry).
Authority Control
Maintenance of established headings, both within an authority file and within bibliographic files, such as catalogs. Basically consists of establishing one standard form of a name or word under which library patrons should search within a catalog. Also involves the creation of cross-reference names or terms.
Authority File
A list of authorized headings, documentation, and cross references.
Authority Record
A record containing the authorized form of a personal name, corporate name, meeting name, name of a jurisdiction, uniform title (including series title), name/title combination, subject heading, or subject subdivision to be used in constructing access points in MARC bibliographic records. It may also contain the forms of these names, titles, and subjects that should be used as references to the authorized form, and information about the interrelationships (cross-references) among the forms and the sources where the forms were found.
Bibliographic Control
The process of managing library materials by recording identifying data for each item and organizing it for retrieval in a desired manner (usually grouped by authors, titles, and subjects).
A list of resources used in writing a research paper or other document that appears at the end of the document.
Caption Title
A title given at the beginning of the first page of the text.
A formal inventory, description, and locating aid to the holdings of an archive, library, museum or other repository, often in card form or computer database form,
Cataloging Source
Source of cataloging information, represented in USMARC record by field 008, position 39, and field 040, which gives NUC codes for the cataloging agency, transcribing agency, and any agencies that modify the record.
Chief source of information
The source of bibliographic data to be given preference as the source from which a bibliographic description is prepared (e.g. the title page is the chief source of information for the 245 field). Citation. A reference or footnote to a book, a magazine or journal article, or another source. It contains all the information necessary to identify and locate the work, including author, title(s), publisher, date, volume, issue number, and pages.
Classification scheme
A scheme, usually consisting of numbers or alphanumeric or other notation that categorizes or subdivides a subject area or collection of materials. Most classification schemes were originally intended to organize physical items on the shelf. The result was a unique shelving location (call number) for each item that facilitated browsing of material by subject or author.
A statement at the end of an item giving information about the following: the title, author(s), publisher, printer, date of publishing etc. DDC. Dewey Decimal Classification: A system of classifying library and archival materials, particularly in small and medium size libraries. An all-numeric systems, with new numbers added by decimal expansion.
Descriptive cataloging
The part of cataloging in which elements that identify the work are located and transcribed into a bibliographic record. Edition. All copies produced from essentially the same type image and issued by the same entity.
General Material Description (GMD)
Indicates the type of the work (e.g., electronic resource). If the item is a book, no GMD is recorded.
Half Title
A title of a publication appearing on a leaf preceding the title page.
Host Item
An item that contains component parts. ISBD. International Standard Bibliographic Description. Best known in terms of ISBD punctuation, the distinctive punctuation pattern used in almost all American cataloging since 1974.
International Standard Book Number, carried in field 020 of the MARC record.
A list of names or topics usually found at the end of a publication, which directs you to the pages where the names or topics are discussed.
Library of Congress.
Library of Congress Classification (Library of Congress): A system of classifying library and archival materials, particularly in larger research collections. Divides human knowledge into 20 broad categories indicated by single letters of the roman alphabet, with major subdivisions indicated by a second letter, and narrower subdivisions by decimal numbers and further alphabetic notation.
Library of Congress Subject Headings. A comprehensive controlled vocabulary (established list of preferred terms, often with cross references), primarily of topical subjects, with cross references, broader terms, narrower terms, and scope notes. LCSH is used by thousands of institutions to describe and index the content or subject of library and archival material. Developed for print material but also used for moving images. Part of the Library of Congress Authorities (
Each leaf consists of two pages of a book, one on each side, either or both of which may be blank.
Main entry
The chosen main access point for the catalog record. The first item described in the record. Can be: a personal or corporate name, or the title of a composite work, a collection, an anonymous work, a periodical or serial, or a uniform title.
MAchine-Readable Cataloguing - (Library of Congress): Is a format standard for the storage and exchange of bibliographic records and related information in machinereadable form. It consists of a series of detailed standards for the structuring or tagging of data to facilitate the interchange of records between databases or files. The principal format is the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, used for descriptions of library and archival materials. There are also formats for Authority (for controlled vocabularies, or established lists of preferred terms with cross references, Holdings, Classification, and Community Information.
A complete bibliographic unit (= a book). It may be a single work or a collection (a multiple volume set of a finite number of separate parts) that is not a serial.
Name Authority Cooperative Project. A cooperative cataloging project established by the Library of Congress. Participants contribute name, series, and uniform title authority records to the NAF.
National Authority File, a list of authoritative headings for persons and corporate bodies produced by the Library of Congress and NACO libraries. Name-Title Added Entry. An added entry consisting of the name of a person or corporate body and the title of an item.
Online Computer Library Center, the largest shared cataloging service in the world. Contains the largest single online file of bibliographic information in existence. Also offers various subsidiary services such as cataloging, interlibrary loan, access to electronic journals, and many more.
Other preliminaries
The verso of the title page (the page to the left of the title page), any page(s) preceding the title page, and the cover.
Parallel Title
The title proper in another language and/or script (such as Crow) recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area (245 field). Personal Author. The person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work.
A leaf containing illustrative matter, with or without text, that is not numbered consecutively with the main leaves or pages of the book.
1. A new printing of an item made from the original type image. The reprint may reproduce the original exactly, or it may contain minor, but welldefined variations. 2. A new edition with substantially unchanged text.
Running Title
A title that is repeated at the head of foot of each page.
A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numeric or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Serials include periodicals, newspapers, annuals, etc.
A group of separate items related to one another by the fact that each bears, in addition to its own title, a collective title applying to the group as a whole. The series may be numbered or unnumbered.
Sine Loco (s.l.)
Place of publication is unknown. This would appear in the 260 (imprint) field.
Sine nomine (s.n.)
Publisher is unknown. This would appear in the 260 (imprint) field.
Standard Number
The ISSN, ISBN, ISN, or any other internationally agreed upon number that identifies an item uniquely.
Statement of responsibility
Identifies the person(s) or corporate bodies who are responsible for intellectual or artistic content of the work. It is also used for person(s) or bodie(s) responsible for performance. Subfield c of the 245 field.
Subject Heading
A term or phrase used in indexes and library catalogs to group together materials on the same topic.
Subject heading list
A controlled vocabulary (established list of preferred terms, usually with cross references), generally of topical subjects, which can be added to a descriptive record to enable search and retrieval by subject.
Supplied Title
A title provided by the cataloger for an item that has no title proper.
Title page
A page near beginning of an item that usually contains the most complete bibliographic information about the book: author’s name, the fullest form of the book’s title, the name and/or number of the edition, name of the publisher as well as the place and date of publication.
Title Proper
The chief name of an item, including any alternative title, but excluding parallel titles and other title information.
Uniform Title
A collective title used to collocate publications of an author, composer, or corporate body.
The left-hand page of a book, usually bearing an even page number. The side of a printed sheet intended to be read second.


Cuttering for words: After determining the filing position of the work, use the following table to create the Cutter:

Cutter Table:

After initial vowels

for the second letter: b d l-m n p r s-t u-y

use number: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

After initial letter S

for the second letter: a ch e h-i m-p t u w-z

use number: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

After initial letters Qu

for the second letter: a e i o r t y

use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

For initial letters Qa-Qt

use numbers: 2-29

After other initial consonants

for the second letter: a e i o r u y

use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

For expansion

for the letter: a-d e-h i-l m-o p-s t-v w-z

use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Examples and Special Cases

In the examples below, Cutters without popup links conform to the table above.

Cutters for Ilardo, Import, Ito, Ivy, Shillingburg, Singer, and Symposium have been developed when a range of letters in the table has been provided, e.g., l-m. Cutters for Scanlon, Qadduri, Qiao, Qvortrup, Chertok, and Clark have been developed when the second letter is not explicitly stated in the table, e.g., h after an initial consonant. In most cases, Cutters must be adjusted to file an entry correctly and to allow room for later entries.

Vowels S Q Consonants

IBM .I26 Sadron .S23 Qadduri .Q28 Campbell .C36

Idaho .I33 Scanlon .S29 Qiao .Q27 Ceccaldi .C43

Ilardo .I4 Schreiber .S37 Quade .Q33 Chertok .C48

Import .I48 Shillingburg .S53 Queiroz .Q45 Clark .C58

Inman .I56 Singer .S57 Quinn .Q56 Cobblestone .C63

Ipswich .I67 Stinson .S75 Quorum .Q67 Cryer .C79

Ito .I87 Suryani .S87 Qutub .Q88 Cuellar .C84

Ivy .I94 Symposium .S96 Qvortrup .Q97 Cymbal .C96

Note: Do not end a Cutter with the numeral 1 or 0.

For ampersands, see G 100, Section 15; for initials, see G 100, Section 11, Subject Cataloging Manual: Shelflisting (published by Library of Congress).

Cuttering for numerals

When Cuttering for Roman or Arabic numerals, use the Cutters .A12 - .A19. However, if entries already in the shelflist have been assigned "documents numbers" (e.g., .A5 for the corporate heading United States. Dept. of ...) Cutter numerals to file directly behind those entries. Because of the infinite range of numbers, choose a Cutter toward the center of the available span when Cuttering for the first numeral in a class. This will allow room for both smaller and larger numbers. Follow this practice even with relatively low numbers since decimal fractions are filed in numeric order before the number 1. (See G 63, Section 3, Subject Cataloging Manual: Shelflisting published by Library of Congress).


For complete information about MARC and the various manuals, see: = web address for the library of congress MARC information page.

MARC is a standardized way of transcribing your bibliographic record into a format a computer can read, thus making online catalogs possible. It allows any system to use the same record--so, no matter what automated system you choose, the MARC record can be read by the system, and it will know exactly how and where to find the author and the title, etc. It allows the records of many different libraries to come together in a union catalog, such as OMNI.

The actual content a cataloger will place in each MARC field is usually governed and defined by standards outside of MARC. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, for example, define how the physical characteristics of books and other item should be cataloged. The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) provides a list of authorized subject terms to describe the main content of the item. Other cataloging rules and subject thesauri, such as your own local subject heading list, can also be used.

The three numbers on the left side of the page are called fields. A field is a piece of information about the item you are cataloging. Typically, data elements are grouped together within fields according to groupings used within traditional catalog records. For example: the place of publication, the publisher name, and the date of publication are all included as part of the MARC field tagged 260.

These fields are designated with tags, or numbers, that indicate the type of information in the field. Each variable field in a MARC record is identified by a three-character tag from 001 to 999. The tag 100, for example, contains information about the “entity” responsible for the work.

The fields are divided into “series” following the same system that the Anglo American Cataloging Rules are based on. Everything that starts with 100 (whether it’s 100, 110, 111 etc.) deals with the person or “entity” that is responsible for the work. This is called the main entry field. It’s the tag where you list the author or whoever else created the item.

The next group of fields, those starting with 200, is called Title and Title-Related Fields. The most common is 245 - TITLE STATEMENT.

Following is a listing of the most commonly encountered MARC fields.

Some fields can be repeated [these are marked with an (R)]. This means you can use the tag multiple times – for example in the case of subject headings. You can list as many as you think apply. Others (such as the author field) are marked (NR), non-repeatable; meaning you can list only one author etc.

Some tags are followed by indicators – these are the numbers on the right side of the tag. They range from 0 to 9 (only single digits). There can be one or two or no indicators at all (the last case is usually referred to by the statement: both indicators are left blank). They provide information to the computer or give further information about the contents of a field within a MARC record.

Make sure to pay attention to them, because they give the computer instructions on how to deal with the data you put in the field. Don’t just follow what was on the record you used as an example, but look in the MARC instructions to make sure you have filled them out correctly for the item in hand.

An important one is the second indicator of the 245 field. This number tells the computer how many characters to skip when it is reading the title, in order to avoid the problem of titles that begin with "a," "an," or "the". So, the indicator tells the computer how many to skip. If the title begins with "A," the indicator will be 2 (skip the A and the space after it); if the title begins with "An" the indicator will be 3; if the title begins with "The" the indicator will be 4.

Note: OMNI leaves the space of an undefined indicator simply blank, while the MARC manual uses the # sign to mark this.

The information you provide after the indicators is divided into subfields which are marked with delimiters.

Delimiters are used to identify and differentiate between separate elements within a field. A subfield delimiter is a character used in a MARC record to "alert" the computer that the next characters in the record are going to belong to a new subfield, and it should look for the subfield code. (It makes sense to the computer, even if it seems unnecessary to us!)

Subfield codes are one-character codes [a, b, c, etc.] that identify individual elements of information within a MARC field. They are immediately preceded by a delimiter sign and they are placed in front of the information that they identify. Note: OMNI uses the straight line and lower-case letters, i.e. |d unlike the MARC manual which uses a $ sign. OMNI also leaves out the |a or the first subfield indicator and delimiter in most cases.

Example: In the 260, or imprint/publication field, the place of publication is one subfield (subfield "a"), the publisher is another subfield (subfield "b"), and the date of publication is yet another subfield (subfield "c"). So, when someone--or the computer--says 260b, it refers to the b subfield of the 260 field, or the publisher of the item.

When you fill in the subfields pay attention to the codes, the spacing, and the punctuation. Sometimes there is a comma after a subfield, sometimes it is a period, colon, or semi-colon. Look at the examples in the MARC manual to make sure you get them right.

X00 - Personal Names-General Information – Same information applies for the most part for the X10 – Corporate Name fields, X11 – Meeting Name fields, and X30 – Uniform Title fields.


100 - Main Entry - Personal Name (NR)

600 - Subject Added Entry - Personal Name (R)

700 - Added Entry - Personal Name (R)

800 - Series Added Entry - Personal Name (R)

First Indicator

Type of personal name entry element

0 - Forename

1 - Surname

3 - Family name

Second Indicator

# - Undefined

600 - Thesaurus

0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings

1 - LC subject headings for children’s literature

2 - Medical Subject Headings

3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file

4 - Source not specified

5 - Canadian Subject Headings

6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière

7 - Source specified in subfield $2

700 - Type of added entry

# - No information provided

2 - Analytical entry

800 - Undefined

# - Undefined

Subfield Codes

Name portion

|a - Personal name (NR)

|q - Fuller form of name (NR)

|b - Numeration (NR)

|c - Titles and words associated with a name (R)

|d - Dates associated with a name (NR)

|e - Relator term (R)

|j - Attribution qualifier (R)

|u - Affiliation (NR)

|4 - Relator code (R)

Title portion

|t - Title of a work (NR)

|f - Date of a work (NR)

|h - Medium (NR) [600/700/800]

|i - Relationship information (R) [700]

|k - Form subheading (R)

|l - Language of a work (NR)

|m - Medium of performance for music (R) [600/700/800]

|n - Number of part/section of a work (R)

|o - Arranged statement for music (NR) [600/700/800]

|p - Name of part/section of a work (R)

|r - Key for music (NR) [600/700/800]

|s - Version (NR) [600/700/800]

|v - Volume/sequential designation (NR) [800]

|x - International Standard Serial Number (NR) [700/800]

Name and title portions

|g - Miscellaneous information (NR)

Subject subdivision portion - for the 6XX fields

|v - Form subdivision (R) [600]

|x - General subdivision (R) [600]

|y - Chronological subdivision (R) [600]

|z - Geographic subdivision (R) [600]

Control subfields

|w - Bibliographic record control number (R) [800]

|0 - Authority record control number (R)

|2 - Source of heading or term (NR) [600]

|3 - Materials specified (NR) [600/700/800]

|5 - Institution to which field applies (NR) [700/800]

|6 - Linkage (NR)

|8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

Content designators identify the subelements occurring in personal name fields constructed according to generally accepted cataloging and thesaurusbuilding rules (e.g., Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR 2), Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)). Personal names used in phrase subject headings (e.g., John, the Baptist, Saint, in the Koran) are contained in field 650 (Subject Added Entry-Topical Term).

Guidelines for applying all content designators except the second indicator position are given in this section. A field-specific list of content designators and guidelines for applying the second indicator position are provided under the description for each specific X00 field.

First Indicator - Type of personal name entry element Value that identifies the form of the entry element of the field. The values distinguish among forenames, surnames, and family names used as the entry element.

0 - Forename

Heading begins with a forename or is a name consisting of words, phrases, initials, separate letters, or numerals that are formatted in direct order.

100 0# John,|cthe Baptist, Saint.

700 0# Father Divine.

100 0# Author of The diary of a physician,|d1807-1877.

[Phrase name is formatted in direct order.]

700 0# R. M. B.

[Initials representing name are in direct order.]

600 00 Norodom Sihanouk,|cPrince,|d1922-

1 - Surname

Heading is a surname formatted in inverted order (surname, forename) or a name without forename(s) which is known to be a surname. If there is uncertainty that a name without forename(s) is a surname, the first indicator position contains value 0. Phrases, when formulated with inversion and an entry element similar to a surname are treated as a surname.

100 1# Fitzgerald, David.

100 1# Chiang, Kai-shek,|d1887-1975.

100 1# Watson,|cRev.

600 10 Smith,|dfl. 1813.

[Name without forename known to be a surname]

700 1# Vérez Peraza, Elena,|d1919-

3 - Family name

Heading is the name of a family, clan, dynasty, house, or other such group. The name may be constructed in direct or inverted order.

600 30 Premyslid dynasty.

600 30 Norfolk, Dukes of.

Second Indicator

Second indicator position is unique to the function of the personal name field. It is described under the following fields: 100 (Main Entry-Personal Name); 600 (Subject Added Entry-Personal Name); 700 (Added Entry-Personal Name); and 800 (Series Added Entry-Personal Name).

|a - Personal name [in OMNI the |a is left out]

Name may be a surname and/or forename; letters, initials, abbreviations, phrases, or numbers used in place of a name; or a family name. A parenthetical qualifying term associated with the name is contained in subfield |c, and a fuller form of name added as a qualifier is contained in subfield |q.

100 1# Williams, Martha E.

100 0# Marcelle,|cTante, pseud.

600 30 Morton family.

700 1# Ibn al-Mu`tazz, `Abd Allah,|d861-908.

|b - Numeration

Roman numeral or a roman numeral and a subsequent part of a forename. It is used only in a forename heading (first indicator, value 0).

100 0#|aJohn Paul|bII,|cPope,|d1920-

|c - Titles and words associated with a name

Includes qualifying information such as:

Note: Fuller forms of names given in parentheses are given in subfield |q.

100 1# Russell, John,|cmap maker.

600 00 Moses|c(Biblical leader)

600 10 Drake, Francis,|cSir,|d1540?-1596.

If the heading is a surname followed directly by a prefix without intervening forenames or forename initials, the prefix is contained in subfield |c to prevent its being processed as a forename in searching and sorting.

Multiple adjacent titles or words associated with a name are contained in a single subfield |c. Subfield |c is repeated only when words associated with a name are separated by subelements contained in other subfields.

|d - Dates associated with a name

Dates of birth, death, or flourishing or any other date used with a name. A qualifier used with the date (e.g., b., d., ca., fl., ?, cent.) is also contained in subfield |d.

100 1# Rodgers, Martha Lucile,|d1947-

|e - Relator term

Designation of function that describes the relationship between a name and a work, e.g., ed., comp., ill., tr., collector, joint author. You can find the complete list of relator terms/codes at:

700 1# Smith, Elsie,|d1900-1945,|eillustrator.

|f - Date of a work. Date of publication used with a title of a work in a name/title heading.

700 12 Freud, Sigmund,|d1856-1939.|tSelections.|f1978.

Dates added parenthetically to a title to distinguish between identical titles entered under the same name are not separately subfield coded. Exception: For music, see subfield |n.

|g - Miscellaneous information

Data element that is not more appropriately contained in another defined subfield. This subfield is defined for consistency in the heading fields. Subfield |g is unlikely to be used in an X00 field.

|h - Medium [600/700/800]

Media qualifier used with a title of a work in a name/title field.

|i - Relationship information [700]

Designation of a relationship between the resource described in the 7XX field and the resource described in the 1XX/245 of the record. This may be an uncontrolled textual phrase or a controlled textual value from a list of relationships between bibliographic resources.

245 00|aTriumph :|bfor concert band /|cby Michael Tippett.

700 1#|iparaphrase of (work)|aTippett, Michael,|d 1905-1998.|tMask of time.

User display: Triumph : for concert band / by Michael Tippett.

User display: Paraphrase of Tippett, Michael, 1905-1998. Mask of time.

245 00 Alice in Wonderland, or, What’s a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /|cHanna-Barbera Productions.

700 1|iparody of (work)|aCarroll, Lewis,|d1832-1898.|t Alice’s adventures in Wonderland.

User display: Alice in Wonderland, or, What’s a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? / Hanna-Barbera Productions.

User display: Parody of Carroll, Lewis, 1832-1898. Alice’s adventures in Wonderland.

|j - Attribution qualifier

Attribution information for names when the responsibility is unknown, uncertain, fictitious, or pseudonymous. Qualifiers should be used that follow the name of a known artist for the work.

100 0# E.S.,|cMeister,|d15th cent.,|jFollower of

|k - Form subheading

Form subheading that occurs in the title portion of an X00 field. Form subheadings used with personal names include Selections.

700 12 Ribeiro, Tomás,|d1831-1901.|tPoems.|kSelections.|f1984.

700 12 Melville, Herman,|d1819-1891.|tSelections.|f1981.

[The word Selections is used as a uniform title and is contained in subfield |t.]

|l - Language of a work

Name of a language(s) (or a term representing the language, e.g., Polyglot) of a work in a name/title field.

700 12 Shakespeare, William,|d1564-1616.| tSelections.|lGerman.|f1982.

|m - Medium of performance for music[600/700/800]

Term(s) designating the medium of performance used in a uniform title for a work in a name/title field.

700 1# Beethoven, Ludwig van,|d1770-1827.|tSonatas,|mpiano.|kSelections.

Multiple adjacent elements in a single medium statement are contained in a single subfield |m. Subfield |m is repeated only when medium of performance statements are separated by subelements contained in other subfields.

700 1# Arne, Thomas Augustine,|d1710-1778.|tConcertos,|mkeyboard instrument, orchestra.|nNo. 3.|pCon Spirito,|mkeyboard instrument.

[Subfield |m is repeated due to intervening subelements.]

If the uniform title includes as part of the medium the abbreviation "acc." or "unacc.," the abbreviation is recorded in subfield |m. The abbreviation "unacc." is recorded in subfield |t when it is not an addition to a statement of medium. When a phrase such as "pianos (2)," "4 hands," etc., follows a collective uniform title for a specific medium of performance, it is included in subfield |t.

|n - Number of part/section of a work

Number designation for a part/section of a work used with a title in a name/title field.

In music uniform titles, the serial, opus, or thematic index number, or a date used to distinguish one work from another, is contained in subfield |n. Multiple alternative numberings (often separated by a comma) are contained in a single subfield |n. Multiple numberings that are hierarchical (often separated by a period) are contained in separate occurrences of subfield |n.

700 1# Tolkien, J. R. R.|q(John Roland Reuel),|d1892-1973.|tLord of the rings.|n2,|pTwo towers.

[Part/section is both numbered and named.]

700 12 Schubert, Franz,|d1797-1828.|tImpromptus,|mpiano,|nD. 935.|nNo. 2.|f1985.

|p - Name of part/section of a work

Name designation of a part/section of a work in a name/title field.

700 12 Hindemith, Paul,|d1895-1963.|tNoblissimavisione.|pMeditation;|oar. |f1977.

|q - Fuller form of name

More complete form of part of the name that is in subfield |a.

100 0# H. D.|q(Hilda Doolittle),|d1886-1961.

|r - Key for music [600/700/800]

Statement of key in which the music is written used in a uniform title for a work in a name/title field.

700 12 Beethoven, Ludwig van,|d1770-1827.|tSonatas,|mpiano,|nno. 13, op. 27, no. 1,|rE major.|f1986.

|s - Version [600/700/800]

Version, edition, etc., information used with a title of a work in a name/title field.

700 1# Harrison, Tinsley Randolph,|d1900-|tPrinciples of internal medicine.|s9th ed.

800 1# Shakespeare, William,|d1564-1616.|tWorks.|f1981.|sMethuen.

|t - Title of a work

Uniform title, a title page title of a work, or a series title used in a name/title field.

600 10 Shakespeare, William,|d1564-1616.|tHamlet.

700 12 Cendrars, Blaise, 1887-1961.|tSelections.|f1987.

|u - Affiliation

Affiliation or address of the name.

100 1# Brown, B. F.|uChemistry Dept., American University.

|v - Volume/sequential designation[800]

Volume number or other sequential designation used in conjunction with a series added entry in field 800.

800 1# Fernando, A. Denis N.|tResource maps of Sri Lanka ;|vpt. 2.

|v - Form subdivision [600]

Form subdivision that designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield |v is appropriate only when a form subject subdivision is added to a personal or family name to form an extended subject heading. Subfield |v is used for form terms when they function as indicated above. Subfield |x may be used if the terms function as general subdivisions. A form subdivision in subfield |v is generally the last subfield in the field. The subfield may be repeated if more than one form subdivision is used.

600 30|aClark family|vFiction.

600 00 Gautama Buddha|vEarly works to 1800.

|w - Bibliographic record control number[800]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

|x - International Standard Serial Number[700/800]

ISSN for a serial title given in the title portion of a name/title field. The ISSN is an agency-assigned data element. ISSNs are assigned to serial publications by national centers under the auspices of the ISSN Network.

|x - General subdivision [600]

Subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfield |v (Form subdivision), subfield |y (Chronological subdivision), or subfield |z (Geographic subdivision). Subfield |x is appropriate only when a general subdivision topical is added to a name or a name/title.

600 10 Brunhoff, Jean de,|d1899-1937|xCharacters|xBabar.

|y - Chronological subdivision [600]

Subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a name or name/title.

|z - Geographic subdivision [600]

Appropriate only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a name or name/title.

600 00 Frederick|bII,|cHoly Roman Emperor,|d1194-1250|xHomes and haunts|zItaly.

|0 - Authority record control number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

|2 - Source of heading or term [600]

MARC code that identifies the source list from which the heading in a 600 subject added entry field was assigned. It is used only when the second indicator position contains value 7 (Source specified in subfield |2). Code from: Subject Heading and Term Source Codes.

600 17 Nixon, Richard M.,|d1913-|2henn

|3 - Materials specified[600/700/800]

Part of the described materials to which the field applies.

|4 - Relator code

MARC code that specifies the relationship between a name and a work. More than one relator code may be used if the person has more than one function. Code from: MARC Code List for Relators ( The code is given after the name portion in name/title fields.

700 1# Herrman, Egbert.|4org

Relator terms, which also specify the relationship of a person to a work, are contained in subfield |e.

|5 - Institution to which field applies [700/800]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

|6 - Linkage

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

|8 - Field link and sequence number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

Punctuation - Punctuation of the subelements of a heading is generally dictated by descriptive cataloging or subject heading system/thesaurus rules. These input conventions clarify MARC punctuation practices. Fields 100, 600, 700, and 800 end with a mark of punctuation or a closing parenthesis. If the final subfields are subfield |0, |2, |3, |4, or|5, the mark of punctuation or closing parenthesis precedes those subfields.

600 10 Capote, Truman,|d1924-|xCriticism and interpretation.

700 1# Ellington, Duke,|d1899-1974.|tSelections;|oarr.|f1986.

Name portion of a name/title heading ends with a mark of punctuation. The mark of punctuation is placed inside a closing quotation mark. A name or title portion followed by a subject subdivision does not end with a mark of punctuation unless the name or title portion ends with an abbreviation, initial/letter, or open date.

600 10 Savos’kin, A.N.|q(Anatolii Nikolaevich)|vBibliography.

600 10 Tatlin, Vladimir Evgrafovich,|d1885-1953.|tMonument to the Third


Spacing - Adjacent personal name initials/letters or an abbreviation for a name and an adjacent name or initial/letter are separated by one space.

100 1# Hyatt, J. B.

100 1# Flam, F. A.|q(Floyd A.)

700 1# Enschedé, Ch. J.

100 1# Gorbanev, R. V.|q(Rostislav Vasil’evich)

No spaces are used in initials/letters that do not represent personal names.

100 0# Cuthbert,|cFather, O.S.F.C.,|d1866-1939.

100 1# Sharma, S. K.,|cM.P.H.

Initial Articles - Initial articles (e.g., La) occurring at the beginning of name heading fields are sometimes omitted (except when the intent is to file on the article). Initial articles occurring at the beginning of the title and/or part portion of a name/title added entry (i.e., 600, 700, 800) may also be omitted. Any diacritics and/or special characters occurring at the beginning of fields are retained. Note that such characters are usually ignored for purposes of sorting or filing.

Following is a listing of the most commonly encountered MARC fields, indicators and tags, with pertinent information to what goes where.

Main Entry Fields (1XX)

Fields 1XX contain a name or a uniform title heading used as a main entry in bibliographic records. It’s the field where you list the author or whoever else created the item. The most common is the 100 where there is an author. If no author is listed, you may use 110 (corporate name) as author. This is the case when the work is something produced by LBHC for example. If it is a compilation of conference proceedings use 111 – meeting name as author.

100 - Main Entry - Personal Name (NR)

110 - Main Entry - Corporate Name (NR)

111 - Main Entry - Meeting Name (NR)

130 – Main Entry – Uniform Title (R)

Title and Title-Related Fields (20X-24X)

Fields 210-24X contain the title of the item described in the bibliographic record and variant titles that also apply to the item. These fields may be used to generate access points and to display notes for the various titles.

The most common is 245 - TITLE STATEMENT (NR). Here you usually use 1 as the first indicator (means you had an author or other entity listed in one of the 100 fields as a responsible party for the creation of the work). Remember, the second indicator in this field is the one which tells the computer how many characters are at the beginning of the title that should be ignored. Most commonly the indicator is 0, but if the title begins with an a, an or the, you need to put 2, 3, or 4 (respectively) as your second indicator.

210 - Abbreviated Title (R)

222 - Key Title (R)

240 - Uniform Title (NR)

242 - Translation of Title by Cataloging Agency (R)

243 - Collective Uniform Title (NR)

245 - Title Statement (NR)

246 - Varying Form of Title (R)

Edition, Imprint, etc. Fields (25X-27X)

Fields 250-260 contain edition, imprint, address, and other publication source information, and data related to specific forms of material that apply to the item described in the bibliographic record.

250 - Edition Statement (NR)

254 – Musical Presentation Statement (NR)

255 - Cartographic Mathematical Data (R)

256 - Computer File Characteristics (NR)

257 - Country of Producing Entity For Archival Films (NR)

258 - Philatelic Issue Date (R)

260 - Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint) (R)

263 - Projected Publication Date (NR)

270 - Address (R)

Physical Description Fields, etc. Fields (3XX) Fields 300-362 contain physical characteristics, publication frequency, price, and physical arrangement information for the item described in the bibliographic record. Information about the dissemination of bibliographic items and the security status of bibliographic data relating to them is also recorded in fields in this group.

300 - Physical Description (R)

306 – Playing Time (NR)

307 – Hours, etc. (R)

310 - Current Publication Frequency (NR)

321 – Former Publication Frequency (R)

340 - Physical Medium (R)

342 – Geospatial Reference Data (R)

343 - Planar Coordinate Data (R)

351 – Organization and Arrangement of Materials (R)

352 - Digital Graphic Representation (R)

355 - Security Classification Control (R)

357 - Originator Dissemination Control (NR)

362 - Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation (R)

363 – Normalized Date and Sequential Designation (R)

365 – Trade Price (R)

366 - Trade Availability Information (R)

Series Statement Fields (4XX)

490 - Series Statement (R)

Note Fields (Part 1: 50X-53X)

Fields 500-53X contain notes relating to aspects of bibliographic items that are not specific to any particular type of material or control (e.g., archival control). Specialized note fields are used when access to the data is needed and/or the note is introduced by a distinctive word or phrase. Field 500 is used for all other note information.

500 - General Note (R)

501 – With Note (R)

502 – Dissertation Note (R)

504 - Bibliography Note (R)

505 - Formatted Contents Note (R)

506 – Restrictions on Access Note (R)

507 – Scale Note for Graphic Material (NR)

508 - Creation/Production Credits Note (R)

Credits for persons or organizations, other than members of the cast, who have participated in the creation and/or production of the work. The introductory term Credits: is usually generated as a display constant. Field 508 is repeatable to record complex or multiple credit notes.


Both are undefined.

Subfield Codes

|a - Creation/production credits note (NR)

|6 - Linkage (NR)

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

|8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

510 – Citation/References Note (R)

511 - Participant or Performer Note (R)

This field includes information about the participants, players, narrators, presenters, or performers.

The participant or performer note is sometimes displayed and/or printed with an introductory term or phrase that is generated as a display constant based on the first indicator value

First Indicator

0 - No display constant generated

1 - Cast

Second Indicator


Subfield Codes

|a - Participant or performer note (NR)

|6 - Linkage (NR)

|8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

513 - Type of Report and Period Covered Note (R)

514 – Data Quality Note (NR)

515 – Numbering Peculiarities Note (R)

516 – Type of Computer File or Data Note (R)

518 - Date/Time and Place of an Event Note (R)

520 - Summary, etc. (R)

521 - Target Audience Note (R)

522 – Geographic Coverage Note (R)

524 - Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note (R)

525 - Supplement Note (R)

526 – Study Program Information Note (R)

530 - Additional Physical Form Available Note (R)

533 - Reproduction Note (R)

534 - Original Version Note (R)

535 – Location of Originals/Duplicates Note (R)

Note Fields (Part 2: 53X-58X)

536 - Funding Information Note (R)

538 – System Details Note (R)

540 - Terms Governing Use and Reproduction Note (R)

541 - Immediate Source of Acquisition Note (R)

544 – Location of Other Archival Materials Note(R)

545 - Biographical or Historical Data (R)

546 – Language Note (R)

547 - Former Title Complexity Note (R)

550 - Issuing Body Note (R)

552 - Entity and Attribute Information Note (R)

555 – Cumulative Index/Finding Aids Note (R)

556 - Information about Documentation Note (R)

561 – Ownership and Custodial History (R)

562 – Copy and Version Identification Note (R)

563 – Binding Information (R)

565 - Case File Characteristics Note (R)

567 - Methodology Note (R)

580 - Linking Entry Complexity Note (R)

581 – Publications about Described Materials Note (R)

583 - Action Note (R)

584 – Accumulation and Frequency of Use Note (R)

585 – Exhibitions Note (R)

586 – Awards Note (R)

Subject Access Fields (6XX)

Fields 600-65X (with the exception of field 653 that is used for uncontrolled index terms) contain subject headings or access terms that provide additional access to a bibliographic record through a heading or term that is constructed according to established subject cataloging or thesaurus-building principles and guidelines. The standard list or authority file used is identified by the MARC source code contained in subfield |2 that is used in conjunction with value 7.

600 - Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R)

610 - Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R)

611 - Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R)

630 - Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R)

648 - Subject Added Entry—Chronological Term (R)

650 - Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R)

651 - Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R)

653 - Index Term--Uncontrolled (R)

654 - Subject Added Entry- Faceted Topical Terms (R)

655 - Index Term--Genre/Form (R)

656 - Index Term--Occupation (R)

657 - Index Term –Function (R)

658 - Index Term --Curriculum Objective (R)

662 - Subject Added Entry --Hierarchical Place Name (R)

Added Entry Fields (70X-75X)

Added entries that provide additional access to a bibliographic record from names and/or titles having various relationships to a work. Thus fields 700-75X contain a name and/or title or a term that provides access to a bibliographic record that is not provided through main entry (1XX), subject access (6XX), series statement (4XX), series added entry (8XX), or title (20X-24X) fields.

Added entries are made for persons, corporate bodies, and meetings having some form of responsibility for the creation of the work, including intellectual and publishing responsibilities.

Also included are added entries for other titles under authority control related to the work for which the record is made, such as other editions, etc. Field 740 contains a title not under authority control for a part of the item being cataloged, or a related item. Added entries are assigned to records for persons, corporate bodies, meetings, and titles which are not given access through subject or series entries. Fields 752-754 provide for access to an item through other aspects of its content or description.

Descriptions of the first indicator and all subfield codes, as well as input conventions for the 700, 710, 711, and 730 fields are given in the following General Information sections: X00, X10, X11, and X30. The second indicator is described in the specific section for each field. All content designators for fields 720, 740-754 are described in the specific section for each field.

Added entry fields are not used as often in bibliographic records for materials under archival control as they are for materials under other types of control. In archival control, greater use is made of the 6XX fields for access.

700 - Added Entry--Personal Name (R)

710 - Added Entry--Corporate Name (R)

711 - Added Entry--Meeting Name (R)

720 - Added Entry--Uncontrolled Name (R)

730 - Added Entry--Uniform Title (R)

740 - Added Entry--Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title (R)

751 - Added Entry-Geographic Name (R)

752 - Added Entry--Hierarchical Place Name (R)

753 – System Details Access to Computer Files (R)

754 – Added Entry—Taxonomic Identification (R)


Added entry in which the name is not controlled in an authority file or list. It is also used for names that have not been formulated according to cataloging rules. Names may be of any type (e.g., personal, corporate, meeting). Used when one of the other access fields (e.g., 1XX (Headings) or 7XX (Added Entries)) cannot be used because the level of control and/or structure of the name does not meet the requirements of the other access fields. Field 720 should not be used for uncontrolled names intended to provide subject access. In that case, field 653 (Index Term-Uncontrolled) is preferred.

The parts of names consisting of several parts can be recorded in whatever order is desired. Field 720 is repeated for multiple names.


First Indicator - Type of name

Whether the name is personal, not personal, or the type is not known.

# - Not specified: Type of name is not known or not specified.

1 – Personal: Name is known to be personal.

2 – Other: Name is known to be other than personal.

Second Indicator - Undefined

Subfield codes

|a - Name

Uncontrolled name. There are no requirements for the style, formulation, or structure of name, whether is consists of one part or several. Parts may be recorded in direct or inverted order. A single occurrence of subfield |a contains all the parts of the name. Multiple names are recorded in separate occurrences of field 720.

720 1 Blacklock, Joseph

720 Vonderrohe, Robert, 1934-|eeditor

720 2 CAPCON Library Network|eauthor

720 U.S. Energy Information Administration, Coal Statistics Division

720 1 Theodore K. Hepburn|einventor

|e - Relator term

Relationship between a name and a work, e.g., ed., comp., ill., tr., collector, joint author.

720 |aMorris, Andrea Crawford|eill.

720 |aAlza Corporation|eassignee

- 88 -

|4 - Relator code

MARC code that specifies the relationship between a name and a work. More than one relator code may be used if the name entity has more than one function. Code from: MARC Code List for Relators ( The code is given after the name portion in name/title fields.

720 |aHoughton Mifflin Company|4pbl

720 |aMaddox, James W.|4sec|4mon

Linking Entry Fields (76X-78X)

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760 - Main Series Entry (R)

762 - Subseries Entry (R)

765 - Original Language Entry (R)

767 - Translation Entry (R)

770 - Supplement/Special Issue Entry (R)

772 - Supplement Parent Entry (R)

773 - Host Item Entry (R)

774 - Constituent Unit Entry (R)

775 - Other Edition Entry (R)

776 - Additional Physical Form Entry (R)

777 - Issued With Entry (R)

780 - Preceding Entry (R)

785 - Succeeding Entry (R)

786 – Data Source Entry (R)

787 - Nonspecific Relationship Entry (R)

Series Added Entry Fields (80X-830X)

Fields 841-86X contain descriptions for data elements which are an integral part of the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data and data elements which may appear either in bibliographic records or in separate MARC holdings records.

841 – Holdings Coded Data Values (NR)

842 – Textual Physical Form Designator (NR)

843 – Reproduction Note (R)

844 – Name of Unit (NR)

845 – Terms Governing Use and Reproduction Note (R)

850 - Holding Institution (R)

852 - Location (R)

853 – Captions and Pattern—Basic Bibliographic Unit (R)

854 - Captions and Pattern –Supplementary Material (R)

855 - Captions and Pattern --Indexes (R)

856 - Electronic Location and Access (R)

863 – Enumeration and Chronology-- Basic Bibliographic Unit (R)

864 - Enumeration and Chronology – Supplementary Material (R)

865 - Enumeration and Chronology --Indexes (R)

866 - Textual Holdings--Basic Bibliographic Unit (R)

867 - Textual Holdings--Supplementary Material (R)

868 - Textual Holdings--Indexes (R)

876 – Item Information--Basic Bibliographic Unit (R)

877 - Item Information--Supplementary Material (R)

878 - Item Information--Indexes (R)

880 - Alternate Graphic Representation (R)

882 - Replacement Record Information (NR)

886 – Foreign MARC Information Field (R)

887 - Non-MARC Information Field (R)

[Find the complete list at:]

Note: It is generally a good idea to just spell out the term – most readers would be hard put to guess the meaning of the codes.

Author [aut]

Use for a person or organization chiefly responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a work, usually printed text. This term may also be used when more than one person or body bears such responsibility.

UF Joint author

Author in quotations or text extracts [aqt]

Use for a person or organization whose work is largely quoted or extracted in works to which he or she did not contribute directly. Such quotations are found particularly in exhibition catalogs, collections of photographs, etc.

Author of afterword, colophon, etc. [aft]

Use for a person or organization responsible for an afterword, postface, colophon, etc. but who is not the chief author of a work.

Author of introduction, etc. [aui]

Use for a person or organization responsible for an introduction, preface, foreword, or other critical introductory matter, but who is not the chief author.

Compiler [com]

Use for a person or organization who produces a work or publication by selecting and putting together material from the works of various persons or bodies.

Collector [col]

Use for a person or organization who has brought together material from various sources that has been arranged, described, and cataloged as a collection. A collector is neither the creator of the material nor a person to whom manuscripts in the collection may have been addressed.

Editor [edt]

Use for a person or organization who prepares for publication a work not primarily his/her own, such as by elucidating text, adding introductory or other critical matter, or technically directing an editorial staff.

Illustrator [ill]

Use for a person or organization who conceives, and perhaps also implements, a design or illustration, usually to accompany a written text.

Interviewee [ive]

Use for a person or organization who is interviewed at a consultation or meeting, usually by a reporter, pollster, or some other information gathering agent.

Interviewer [ivr]

Use for a person or organization who acts as a reporter, pollster, or other information gathering agent in a consultation or meeting involving one or more individuals.

Joint author

USE Author

Monitor [mon]

Use for a person or organization that supervises compliance with the contract and is responsible for the report and controls its distribution. Sometimes referred to as the grantee, or controlling agency.

Narrator [nrt]

Use for a person who is a speaker relating the particulars of an act, occurrence, or course of events.

Publisher [pbl]

Use for a person or organization that makes printed matter, often text, but also printed music, artwork, etc. available to the public.


Original version:

A handbook for oral history research on the Crow Indian reservation / by Timothy P. McCleary.

Publication info: Crow Agency, MT : Little Big Horn College Archives, c1996.

Physical descrip: 61 p. ; 28 cm.


Subject term: Oral history--Handbooks, manuals, etc.

Local subject: Crow Indians--History--Methodology--Handbooks, manuals, etc.

New version:

043 n-us-mt

100 1 McCleary, Timothy P.

245 12 A handbook for oral history research on the Crow Indian reservation /|cTimothy P. McCleary.

260 Crow Agency, MT :|bLittle Big Horn College Archives,|cc1996.

300 61 p. ;|c28 cm.

505 Little Big Horn College: College mission statement—Archives mission statement—Oral history research on the Crow Indian Reservation: Introduction— Importance of oral history to the Crow Indian community—An overview of Crow etiquette—Oral history project methods: Training—Topics of research—The oral history interview: Preparation for the interview—Conducting the interview— Processing of interview materials—Release form: legal agreement.

520 According to the mission statement of the Little Big Horn College archives, self-knowledge gives a clear sense of identity and purpose in life. The cultural and historical resources in the archives assist in the development of that selfknowledge, sense of identity, and purpose and thus ultimately enhance the perpetuation of Crow culture.

520 Much of this history and culture has only been, and continues to be, preserved and transmitted orally. Through the materials preserved in the archives the Crow community can use both the materials gathered by outside scholars/observers as well as the traditional oral knowledge as a way to balance or correct non-Crow interpretations and stereotypes, with new research often conducted by tribal members themselves or in collaboration with outside scholars.

520 The oral transmission of beliefs, practices, and traditions is an integral part of Crow culture and through oral history research this information can be preserved. This handbook is meant to provide information on how to perform such research on the Crow Indian Reservation. 520 Most Crow people are bilingual, though many prefer to speak Crow and to follow Crow customs and beliefs. Their kinship system is complex, with the relatives on the mother’s side providing for the emotional and physical needs of the individual, while those on the father’s side are expected to provide the religious training and social recognition of the individual. Crows convey the moral, ethical, and behavioral expectations of their culture through narratives. From these stories, traditionally told during long winter nights, Crow children learn what is expected of them in life and how they might achieve their desires.

520 Crow people have two types of narratives: baaeechichiwaau = re-telling a story and baleechiweetaale = telling something witnessed. The first kind includes stories about events in the distant past; myths and legends. The second category narratives are regarded as factual and reference specific knowledge, events and/or people.

520 The techniques used in the telling of the stories is easy to recognize. When the person has not actually witnessed the story (as in ‘re-telling stories’) the narrator uses the term “huuk” = “they say”, lengthens appropriate words, and repeats key points. The teller may also incorporate Crow words (when relating the story in English) either for emphasis, to explain Crow philosophy, or simply because he doesn’t know the appropriate English word.

520 Stories also differ from storyteller to storyteller, possibly due to the teller’s family, historic band group or related present day district origins of the individual. These variations are recognized and do not create conflict. Storytellers often begin a story telling session by describing the lineage of the story, placing it in the context of family and band/district group. The telling something witnessed stories, which are often anecdotal, do not require a ‘preamble’.

520 Though following the rules of common courtesy will make the interview process more enjoyable, the Crow have some additional customs that are worth noting. They are usually reserved, especially around strangers and the women should not talk with strangers. They allow a person to conclude his remarks before others speak and consider a silence part of acceptable communication. They find both prolonged eye contact and physical touching (other than handshaking) inappropriate, though children are afforded much attention. If you find only members of the opposite sex present upon your arrival you should reschedule and leave immediately. It is improper for a woman of any age be alone with men, even her own adult son. The sexes often sit separately when eating and rarely converse during meals. They will offer all they have at the meal, so don’t ask for something else or more of something which has already been eaten.

520 Within families adult siblings are supposed to only discuss serious matters. Maternal aunts and uncles are treated as sisters and brothers, and the uncles discipline the children. Some relationships are based on avoidance, such as mother-in-law and son-in-law who never speak to each other. A husband never jokes with his wife’s brother or the brother’s wife, while his relationship with her sisters is almost the opposite. The woman treats her brother’s wife as a sister. It is impolite to ask about accomplishments, personal health, or deceased relatives. Appropriate gifts are also culturally defined.

520 It is best to try for a one-on-one interview, though this can be difficult since the Crow often live with extended family. Obtaining some background information about the person being interviewed is a good idea. Some will gladly discuss politics and religion while others might be offended by these topics. Use common sense to help make the interview process a success.

520 The book also contains a section on the proper training for an oral history researcher as well as some ideas for choosing a research topic. Has a detailed overview of the research process, including: selecting the project and what to expect depending on the selection, how to research the topic beforehand, how to select the interviewee, and how to conduct the unrecorded preinterview as well as a useful list of tips for the interviewer.


Behavior: Crow etiquette, p.16-21.

Gifts: appropriate gifts, p.20.

Kinship: Crow kinship system, p.10-11.

Language: helpful Crow phrases, p.22-23.

Name: Biiluuke = Our Side, Crow name for themselves, p.10.

Stories: Crows have two types of narratives, p.12.

Stories: techniques employed in telling stories, p.12-15.

Traditions: purpose of story telling, p.11.


650 0 Oral history|vHandbooks, manuals, etc.


Crow Indians|xHistory|xMethodology|vHandbooks, manuals, etc.

Crow Indians|xCulture.

Crow Indians|xChildren.

Crow Indians|xClans.

Crow Indians|xClan role.

Crow Indians|xKinship.

Crow Indians|xLanguage.

Crow Indians|xEthics.

Crow Indians|xEthnic identity.

Crow Indians|xFolklore.

Crow Indians|xGenealogy.

Crow Indians|xInterviews.

Crow Indians|xLegends.

Crow Indians|xLittle Big Horn College.

Crow Indians|xOral tradition.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs.

Crow Indians|xTraditional values.

Crow Indians|xWomen.

Original version:

Cultivating themselves : the inter-play of Crow Indian religion and history / by

Peter Nabokov.

Publication info: 1988.

Physical descrip: v, 465 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Dissertation note: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California at Berkeley, 1988.

Bibliography note:Includes bibliographical references (leaves 425-448).

Reproduction note: Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms

International, 1989. v, 465 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.


Subject term: Indians of North America--Montana--History.

Local subject: Crow Indians—Religion and mythology.

Local subject: Crow Indians--Tobacco use. [Tobacco pipes. Smoking.]

Local subject: Crow Indians--Rites and ceremonies.

Local subject: Crow Indians--History.

New version:

043 n-us-mt

100 1 Nabokov, Peter.

- 97 -

245 10 Cultivating themselves :|bthe inter-play of Crow Indian religion and

history /|cPeter Nabokov.

260 |c1988.

300 v, 465 leaves :|bill. ;|c28 cm.

502 Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California at Berkeley, 1988.

504 Includes bibliographical references (leaves 425-448).

505 Introduction—Predicament: Old Man Coyote and Crow creation—Crow archeology and ethnohistory—Orphans on the plains—Quest vision: No Vital’s vision and Crow origins—Scholars and visions—Transaction and adoption— Medicine: Itchichia portrayed—The search for Nicotiana multivalvis—Why Tobacco?—Ritual: “Having children” in 1986—The Crow ritual process— Ritualized history, historical reflections—Power: “The mainstay of our living”—The question of ritual efficacy—Bi’ruke.

520 The Crow link their emergence as a separate tribe – the Absaroka – to their original acquisition of the tobacco plant. Nabokov believes the Crow created the Tobacco Society to make “structural sense” of their transformation from part-time gardeners working on foot to full-time hunters on horseback around the turn of the 18th century. The plains tribes shared an understanding of the mediating power of tobacco which facilitated their political, social, and ceremonial transactions. Unlike Lowie, Nabokov argues there is a singular “plot” to the Tobacco Society which was generated from historical circumstances. The Tobacco ceremony is the only indigenous ritual that has survived till today among the Crow and it is the oldest Crow religious expression. The cultivation portion of the ritual came to an end in 1974 when the last attempt at cultivation failed. However, the adoption ceremony continues. Crows produced moccasins, dresses, painted blankets, shawls and hangings, hide rattles, wooden bowls, decorated pouches, and an array of stuffed animals including birds, weasels and otters to be used only in the rituals of the Tobacco Society. The gift exchanges make the Tobacco Society prestations the most expressive and complex of Crow intra-tribal transactions.

520 The Crow believe that humans are fundamentally incomplete; needing assistance from non-human sources to succeed. This is the reason behind their vision quests which lay the basis for most of their rituals. Because traditional Crow tales had several interpretations depending on the narrator, Nabokov includes several versions of the Crow creation story by tribal members. The author also discusses the role of tobacco in Crow creation stories – the idea that although the Crow were small in number and on their own, the tobacco’s power would enhance their fertility and alleviate their vulnerability by making them fierce. Also includes several creation stories by the Hidatsa as well as an extensive review of non-native perspectives on Crow origins. According to Erlich the favorite theme of Crow mythology is the poor orphan who obtains medicine from a supernatural source and becomes rich. Nabokov includes numerous stories about abandoned or orphaned heroes. He believes the prevalence of these stories among the Crow is caused by the Crow being “orphaned” as a tribe (when they separated from the Hidatsa) – a time when they “as a tribe were without an identity, a culture unborn ... naked and without relatives in new territory receptive to supernatural adoption”. The collective tribal rebirth occasioned by the adoption is “the point where the Crow ‘turn’ from the mythic to the historic”, in other words they have concrete knowledge of their tribe’s history from this point on.

520 The author briefly discusses the current Crow Culture Committee approved “mono-legend” version of the Crow origin – where the identity of the Crow and their acquisition of the sacred Tobacco both arose from a single vision and the quarrel with the Hidatsa is only a “minor eddy”. The versions of the origin story by Foolish Man, Joseph Medicine Crow, and Henry Old Coyote differ from those collected earlier by stating that the Crow traveled “under the guidance of visions to all four corners of the Great Plains” looking for the best place to settle. Nabokov concludes:” Crows today have compressed and synthesized the inherited, central plot (of their origin story) to be dramatized in Tobacco Society ceremonialism.”

520 The thesis includes a few Crow accounts of the importance of the vision quest among the tribe – it was their most private and sacred pursuit. Nabokov then offers multiple perspectives on the vision quest among the Plains Indians by white scholars, including Lowie’s belief that vision questing was of paramount importance to the Crow. The author concludes this overview with “... there is a lingering sense that in a half-century of scholarly inquiry into the vision quest something intrinsic has been overlooked.” He believes the scholars failed to understand the practice in native terms, such as invoking the help of the spirits to fulfill one’s basic needs, i.e. to increase one’s material wealth. Crow’s believe in reciprocity – a concept of give-and-take. Nabokov has several examples of this. According to him there is a continuous exchange of materials for prestige, often exceeding what was received to perpetuate the process, leading to the Crow wisdom that nothing comes for free. Medicine received from the supernatural power came at a cost. In Crow society both the supernatural father and one’s paternal clan father carried one’s prayers and brought one spiritual benefits while their mother’s clan offers more direct material support.

520 The result of a Crow vision is a ceremonial adoption by a spirit. During the vision quest the supplicant performed acts he thought would please the supernatural and expected compensation in return, or he made his acts of devotion contingent on specified favors. The spirit person then made a gift of his medicine in exchange for flesh through the adoption. The less fortunate Crow (those who failed to be directly adopted by a supernatural patron) could by into the “spoils” of the actual visionary by being adopted by him and thus share in the power. Among Plains Indians the process of adoption was a way whereby even bitter enemies might establish common ground. This created a vast network of ritual kinship relationships which extended throughout the entire Plains. The Crow search for visions could be characterized as a search for nonkin parentage which was unique to the tribe. The spectrum of “beings” which qualified as potential “fathers” to questing Crow was extensive and often categorized by habitat – air, earth, water. Practically anything from these realms could, through their sanctification in a vision, become a medicine = supernatural “father”.

520 During a successful vision quest the “father” promised his “son” help and issued terms of their relationship. From then on when his aid was needed, he was summoned with smoke. In the Tobacco Ceremony, where the members of the society solicited their special guardian on behalf of the entire tribe, one species of tobacco was smoked while another was cultivated (never smoked and only touched by the mixers). Recounts portions of the Crow narratives of the origin of tobacco from Lowie’s Tobacco Society monograph. 520 Nabokov spend considerable effort analyzing the various art forms associated with the Tobacco Ceremony, which depict the tobacco plant, a star motif, or a garden plot. These motifs were beaded on such items as moccasins, medicine bags, as well as used in the face painting. Because these designs were unique to the Crow, Nabokov argues that they were “the summation of this single tribe’s cultural experience...”.

520 Has a long section on the origin of the sacred tobacco, concluding it probably came from the Shoshonis or in trade from the west. He follows this by pondering why the Crow chose tobacco as their most important supernatural patron? To answer the question he examines the importance of ceremonial pipe smoking; contains many examples from various tribes and the Crow in particular. The ritual was used to establish neutral ground when warring tribes sat down to business as well as a supplication to the spirits – the Crow believed that tobacco always pleased one’s medicine and could offset impious behavior.

520 Has a long section on the ritual practices which developed around the sacred tobacco: the symbols, music, incense, liturgy, mimicry, prohibitions etc. According to Nabokov: “ In collective ritual the Crow people have identified with the fecund powers of their sacred tobacco through cultivation and adoption – both of which produce young in the spring.”

520 Has a detailed description of a modern Tobacco Society adoption process between a clan aunt and two of her nieces including and excellent narrative of dancing to the songs. At the end of the ceremony one participant enumerated about the importance of the T.S – how it had preserved the Crows, had come from the east and was the only thing left that was truly theirs. When T.S. officials speak publicly they recite the origin and pedigree of their particular entitlements. This public bundle validation proves the right of ownership as well as ties the ceremony to named historical forbearers.

520 The author argues that a T.S. adoption and a vision quest share many parallels: in the same way the vision quest produced the sacred tobacco and its perpetuation through ritual the T.S. adoption brings the same rebirthing benefits upon the participating couples. Through the ritual the Crows add a new tier of relatives while reaffirming old beliefs and practices. Has a long chapter relating how the phases of the rituals reflect the historical events of the formation of the Crow tribe. For example the migrating Crow made four “stops” just like the movements during the planting ritual.

520 Discusses changes to the T.S. rituals and the fact that despite the changes the symbolic significance of the society remains high; f.ex. the Crow tribal seal features a Tobacco Society bag. The last part of the thesis discusses the role of the society “in the wider plains arena of cultural politics.” Including the efforts of white people to eradicate all “tribalism” with special emphasis on the T.S. rituals, especially the Tobacco Dance.


Big Bear, Harold and Denise, p.256-257, 266, 269-271.

Blackfoot, p.248.

Burnt Face, p.100.

Cold Wind (Hidatsa), p.116.

Hogan, George, p.210-211.

Iron Bull, p.359.

Little Horse, Flora, p.253.

Medicine Crow, Joseph, p.115, 291.

No Vitals, p.117, 120, 128, 172.

Old Coyote, Henry, p.126, 211.

Owens, Candace and James, p.258, 269.

Plenty Coups, p.59, 92, 113.

Rides Down, William and Sarah, p.258, 269.

Running Coyote, p.118.

Runs Against His Enemy, p.372.

Two Leggings, p.59, 129.


Assimilation: cultural assimilation 1880-1939, p.370-380.

Assimilation: ritual suppression by Holds His Enemy, p.378.

Attitudes: Crow sense of being the chosen people, p.355.

Bands: uniting the Mountain Crow and River Crow during the Tobacco Planting

ceremony by Mrs. Deernose, Two Leggings, and White Arm, p.409.

Ceremonies: Calumet ceremony = ceremonial pipe smoking, p.229-230.

Clans: role of a clan uncle, p.162.

Creation story: Crow bilingual version of the creation story, p.49.

Creation story: Crow narrative of creation, origin, and migration by Iron Bull, p.56.

Creation story: Crow narrative of creation, origin, and migration by Medicine Crow, p.60.

Creation story: Crow narrative of creation, origin, and migration by Little Face, p.61.

Creation story: Crow narrative of creation, origin, and migration by Hunts to Die, p.61-62.

Creation story: Crow narrative of creation, origin, and migration by Two

Leggings, p.62.

Crow country: Blackfoot’s claim to Crow homeland – the four-teepee-polecountry, p.357- 358.

Crow country: Rotten Belly’s description of the Crow country, p.355-356.

Crow Indians: description of the Crow tribe on the move by Murdock, Leonard,

White Arm, p.321, 325.

Crow tribe: end of the tribe by Amy White Man and Tom Yellowtail, p.365.

Crow tribe: tribal seal designed by Lawrence Big Hair, p.343-344.

Culture: viability of Crow culture in the 20th century, p.368.

Culture: work of the Culture Committee, p.50-53.

Customs: Crow custom of renaming persons/things, p.176.

Dances: announcement by White Man Runs Him at a Tobacco Dance, p.335.

Dances: Tobacco or Beaver Dance, p.261, 290-292.

Economics: economic conditions on the reservation 1986, p.21.

Giveaway: collecting items for the adoption giveaway, p.258-260, 263-264.

Kinship: to be completely alone is true poverty to a Crow by Janine Windy Boy

Language: a definition of a scavenger by Joe Ten Bear, p.91-92.

Legend: the Little People, p.97-98.

Medicine: Crow medicine bundles, p.348-349.

Medicine: loss of medicine, p.380.

Medicine: medicine as taskmaster by Roger Stops, p.158.

Medicine: power of the sacred Tobacco, p.349-351.

Medicine: skull medicine bundles, p.92.

Naming: a clan uncle naming a child, p.87.

Origins: Crow migration by Poorest, p.108.

Origins: Crow origin story by Sees the Living Bull, p.360.

Origins: Foolish Man/Bulltail version of Crow origin, p.113-115.

Origins: Medicine Crow/Cold Wind version of Crow origin, p.115-119.

Origins: Old Coyote version of Crow origin, p.119-123.

Problems: problems facing the Crow between 1907-1917,p. 20.

Religion: Crow prayer collected by Frederick Hayden in 1863, p.152-153.

Rituals: Bear Dance Song, p.380.

Rituals: increase ritual, p.293-294.

Rituals: reception of Crow warriors returning from modern wars, p.411.

Rituals: Singing of the Cooked Meat, p.380.

Sayings: dasshuussuua = “breaking with the mouth”, p.305-306.

Songs: lead, chief, first song givers, p.256-257.

Songs: tobacco songs, p.262-263, 265-266, 278, 281-283, 312, 324, 340.

Story: Twines His Tail story by Yellow Brow and Cummins, p.93-97.

Story: Two Leggings as a successful hunt leader by Joe Ten Bear, p.91.

Story: Bear White Child story by Two Leggings, p.90.

Story: Big Metal story by Henry Old Coyote, p.104-105.

Story: lost boy narrative (a Crow story) by Bear’s Arm (a Hidatsa), p.98-100.

Story: origin of the War Dance by Marlene Walking Bear, p.105-106.

Story: story of the orphan boy by Plenty Coups, p.88-89.

Story: the lost little boy story by Caleb Plain Bull, p.97.

Sun Dance: p.295, 298, 371-374, 408.

Sweat lodge: ritual, p.285.

Tobacco Ceremony: description of the adoption procession by Hunts to Die, p.320.

Tobacco Ceremony: erection of the preparatory and adoption lodges, p.269- 270.

Tobacco Ceremony: leader of the adoption procession by Henry Old Coyote, p.321-322.

Tobacco Ceremony: leader of the adoption procession, p.316-317.

Tobacco Ceremony: Pipe bearer by Barney Old Coyote, p.321.

Tobacco Ceremony: procession to the lodge, p.276-279.

Tobacco Ceremony: tobacco planting ceremony in 1939 by Joseph Medicine Crow, p.391.

Tobacco Ceremony: water-bearer ritual, p.279.

Tobacco Society: principal features of Tobacco Society gatherings, p.262-263.

Tobacco Society: role of the Tobacco Society in assuring the integrity of the

Crow tribe by Voget and Hoxie, p.409-410.

Tobacco Society: state of the Tobacco Society in 1937 by Robert Yellowtail, p.390.

Tobacco: ceremonial difference between short and tall tobacco, p.249.

Tobacco: tobacco plant:” the mainstay of Crow living” by Medicine Crow, p.347.

Vision quest: Information about Crow vision quest by Iron Bull, Hunts to Die, Two

Leggings, Henry and Barney Old Coyote, Roger Stops, p.132-133.

Vision quest: the dilemma behind the vision quest, p.47.

White-Crow relations: plea to allow the Beaver Dance by Plenty Coups, p.388.


Indians of North America|zMontana|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xSocieties.


Crow Indians|xAcculturation.




Creation story.



Clan role.

Cultural assimilation.



Economic conditions.



Ethnic identity.



Government relations.




Material culture.

Medicine. Medicine men.

Migration story.

Mountain Crow.



Religion and mythology.

Rites and ceremonies.

River Crow.

Social life and customs.

Songs and music.

Sun Dance.

Sweat lodge ritual.

Tobacco Society.

Tobacco use.

Traditional values.

Vision quest, visions.

Original version:

Personal Author: Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957.

Title: The Crow Indians / Robert H. Lowie ; introduction to the new Bison books edition by Phenocia Bauerle.

Publication info: Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c2004.

Physical descrip: xxvi, 350 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.

General Note: Originally published: New York : Farrar & Rinehart, 1935.

Bibliography note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 335-339) and index.

Contents: Introduction -- Tribal organization -- Kinship and affinity -- From cradle to grave -- The workaday world -- Literature -- Selected tales -- Old woman’s grandchild -- Twined-tail -- Club life -- War -- Religion -- Rites and festivals -- The bear song dance -- The sacred pipe dance -- The tobacco society -- The sun dance -- World-view.

Subject term: Indians of North America--Social life and customs.

Added author: Bauerle, Phenocia.

Internet access: Table of contents

New version:

043 n-us-mt

050 00 E99.C92|bL913 2004

100 1 Lowie, Robert Harry,|d1883-1957.

245 14 The Crow Indians /|cRobert H. Lowie ; introduction to the new

Bison books edition by Phenocia Bauerle.

260 Lincoln :|bUniversity of Nebraska Press,|cc2004.

300 xxvi, 350 p. :|bill. ;|c21 cm.

500 Originally published: New York : Farrar & Rinehart, 1935.

504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 335-339) and index.

505 0 Introduction -- Tribal organization -- Kinship and affinity -- From cradle to grave -- The workaday world -- Literature -- Selected tales -- Old woman’s grandchild -- Twined-tail -- Club life -- War -- Religion -- Rites and festivals -- The bear song dance -- The sacred pipe dance -- The tobacco society -- The sun dance -- World-view.

520 The introduction to this edition contains a discussion of “discrepancies” between Lowie’s writings and the observations of Phenocia Bauerle, a contemporary Crow. According to her Lowie was wrong about the Cow belief system and sorely misunderstood the Tobacco Society and its rituals. He failed to recognize that while all things are important, in certain contexts some may be more important than others. She has a long discussion about the misrepresentations and misguided assumptions he made. She states the work of ethnographers abounds with problems making the resulting written material, such as this book, of little value. However, she concedes, since Lowie did witness the adaptation of the Crow culture to the changing world around it, the book can be a useful resource for cultural preservation, as well as to gain an understanding of the changes that need to be made to recorded history.

520 Though many of the external trappings of Crow life had already changed dramatically by the time of Lowie’s first visit in 1907, their language, old beliefs, and social customs remained relatively untouched. Faith in the visionary experience persisted, devotional sweat baths were common, and clan relationships continued to flourish. “The culture was still very much alive.” In this book Lowie brings to life all the customs and rituals he encountered during his numerous visits (covering the field seasons of 1907, 1910-1916, and 1931) with the Crow: the ceremonies such as the Sun Dance and the Bear Song Dance, the strong bonds of the kinship system with its complicated taboos, tribal organization, division of labor between the sexes, codes of honor, and rites of courtship and wedlock all receive their due.

520 The Crow were divided into two major bands: Mountain Crows = Main Body or Many Lodges and the River Crows. The Kicked in their Bellies, an offshoot of the Mountain Crows, was a band which usually spent the winter apart from the others, but joined them in the spring. Despite these divisions, the Crow were essentially one people, referring to themselves as bî’ruke = we.

520 The Crow society was democratic. A Crow chief attained his title through military achievement, by individual merit. There were four creditable exploits (coups): leadership of a successful war-party, snatching a gun or a bow from a foe, capturing a picketed horse from enemy camp, and being first to touch an enemy. A man who had scored at least one war-honor of each kind ranked as a Good Man (chief). As a body they formed a council and one of the most accomplished ones was chosen as head of the camp. His main duty was to decide when and where to move camp. He also appointed one of the military clubs to act as police, whose main duty was to regulate the communal buffalo hunts and to prevent a war party from setting out at an inauspicious moment. The camp chief usually served as long as his followers enjoyed good luck.

520 Lowie devotes an entire chapter to the Crow clan structure – including the difference between the way one treats the members of the maternal clan versus those from the paternal - and the importance of kinship in Crow society, as well as the attendant terminology and taboos. Crow children had generally a “free and easy life” with countless games to occupy their time. The young boys were raised to become warriors. The children were usually named by a known warrior. Lowie’s discussion of “sex life and marriage customs” is rather extensive and he believed the men were intensely jealous and quite unwilling to accord their wives the freedoms they themselves enjoyed. He spends considerable time explaining the practice of wife stealing. The story of Gray Bull’s matrimonial “career” included in the book is “highly instructive” according to Lowie. The chapter about Crow social customs ends with the discussion of various sicknesses and the ways medicine men treated them and the burial and mourning customs prevalent among the Crow.

520 Lowie explains the division of labor between the sexes in everyday life and includes some detailed information about various implements, such as those used by women to prepare hides and men to fight wars. This section also includes an overview of the daily routine of the Crows as well as various games commonly enjoyed by the adults.

520 The overview of the various forms of “literature” passed orally among the tribe is extensive, as is the number of tales Lowie recites; ranging from Old Man Coyote tales to those of Old Woman’s Grandchild and Twined Tail.

520 The section about the various military clubs (Foxes, Lumpwoods, Big Dogs, Muddy Hands) and their role in society is also wide-ranging. General history of each club is covered in detail, as is dress, organization, and officers. Due to the intense rivalry that existed between the various clubs, they promoted fearlessness in battle. This section also has a description of the Hot Dancers and the Crazy Dog Society.

520 The abundance of resources within Crow country and the need to protect them from rivals, created a state of near constant war with various enemy tribes. The main objective of these intertribal battles was the desire to win personal honor, gain property -- especially horses, and mete out revenge. This includes several stories of raids by various warriors and an account of Sore Belly’s campaign against the Cheyenne.

520 Lowie’s discussion about Crow religious beliefs is thorough. He thought that the vision questing was of paramount importance to the Crow: “Every Crow battered by fortune ... set forth on the quest of a vision.” All creatures were imbued with spirit and Crows sought the aid of these spirits through offerings of fasting and supplication. Lowie heard some sixty reports of encounters with spirits and tried to understand the role the sun played in all of it. In the end he concludes that the “individual guardian spirits” were more important to the Crow than the sun. The individual Crow appeared free in his religious life – there was no coercion to believe in a certain deity. His only guide was his own specific vision which was sought in hopes of social eminence and a source of power. The chapter includes several accounts of legendary vision quests as well as some accounts by contemporary Crows Lowie interviewed.

520 Lowie includes a discussion about the major rites and festivals celebrated by the Crows – such as the Bear Song Dance and the Sacred Pipe Dance. He concludes the book with a lengthy treatise on the origin and rites of the Tobacco Ceremony as well as a thorough description about the Sun Dance ceremony.

520 Drawing on the oral tradition still flourishing among the tribe, Lowie’s interviews with Crow elders vividly depict Crow life in the nineteenth century. Through portrayal of various personalities and their stories, such as: Gray Bull and his marital troubles; Sitting Elk and the rites involving sacred stones; Lone Tree and his visions, the reader gets a glimpse at a world that no longer exists.


Arm Round the Neck, p.16, 29, 82, 266.

Bear Claw, p.214.

Bear Crane, p.30, 74, 83, 89, 255, 295, 299, 308, 312, 320.

Bear From Above, p.13, 302.

Bear Gets Up, p.44, 173, 179-180, 205, 213, 270, 324.

Bear Ghost, p.197, 200.

Bear Wolf, p.180, 287.

Bell Rock, p.173-175, 183, 277.

Big Ox (medicine man), p.16.

Big Shade, p.298.

Big Shadow, p.324.

Big Snake, p.266-267.

Bird, p. 30.

Bird Above, p.270, 272.

Bird Far Away, p.208.

Bird Tail Rattles, p.219.

Birds All Over the Ground, p.11, 301.

Black Bull, p.202.

Blackbird Running, p.16.

Bull All the Time (medicine man), p.63-64, 115, 201, 246.

Bull Chief, p.42-45, 47, 174, 185, 205, 277.

Bull Goes Hunting, p.154.

Bull Tongue, p.229.

Bull Weasel, p.248.

Carpenter, James (Lowie’s best interpreter), p.xxv, 31.

Charges Camp, p.186, 198, 200.

Charges Strong, p.180.

Child In the Mouth, p.178, 183-184, 198, 201, 208.

Collier, John (Commissioner of Indian Affairs), p.xxvi.

Cottontail, p.331-332.

Crazy Head, p.55, 66, 285.

Cut Ear, p.267.

Cuts a Picketed Mule, p.267, 278.

Deer Nose, p.105.

Double Face, p.233, 235.

Eating Fish, p.180.

Fire Bear (Crow policeman), p.11.

Fire Weasel, p.174, 181, 192-195, 197, 206.

Flat Back, p.25, 220, 229.

Flat Dog, p.240, 293.

Flat Head Woman, p.13, 31, 216.

Fox, p.180.

Goes Ahead (medicine man), p.64.

Good Buffalo Calf, p.107.

Good Herald, p.231.

Good Skunk, p.24.

Grandmother’s Knife, p.108, 154, 229.

Granulated Eyelids, p.214.

Grasshopper (Gray Bull’s son), p.32.

Gray Bull (one of Lowie’s chief informants), p.xxiv, 19, 29, 31-32, 66, 111, 185, 192, 195-198, 203-205, 208, 219, 277-279, 293, 295.

Gros Ventre, p.170.

Gun, p.70.

Hillside, p.216, 228, 241, 248.

His Horse is White, p.200.

Holds His Tail, p.26.

Holds the Tail, p.298.

Honest, p.10.

Humped Wolf, p.13, 245.

Hunts the Enemy, p.55, 286.

Hunts To Die, p.84.

Iron Necklace, p.213.

Jackrabbit Head, p.74.

Little Rump, p.238, 277.

Lone Tree, p.173, 205, 213, 245, 273.

Long Hair (chief), p.83-84.

Looks At a Bull’s Phallus, p.261, 263.

Magpie, p.17.

Marks Plainly (James Carpenter’s mother), p.31.

Medicine Crow, p.3, 13-14, 17, 132, 257.

Muskrat, p.33, 63, 184, 188, 215.

No Horse, p.104-105, 312.

No Shinbone, p.106, 218.

Not Mixed, p.293.

Old Coyote, p.175, 177.

Old Crane, p.30.

Old Dog, p.16, 29, 44, 69, 174, 213, 287.

Old Woman, p.13, 46.

One Blue Bead, p.46, 242-243.

One Born, p.196.

One Horn, p.206.

One Horse, p.324.

One Star, p.257.

Onion, p.11.

Packs the Hat, p.55.

Passes Women, p.232, 235.

Plays With His Face, p.229, 233, 235.

Plenty Coups, p.11, 214.

Plenty Fingers, p.238-239.

Plenty Hawk, p.57, 107, 154, 257.

Pounded Meat, p.206.

Pretty Eagle, p.11.

Pretty Enemy, p.300.

Pretty Horse, p.270.

Pretty White, p.178.

Raven Face, p.245.

Red Eye, p.180, 315, 320.

Rides the Spotted Horse, p.203-204.

Rotten Belly (= Sore Belly) (Crow chief), p.xvii.

Saco, Ralph, p.46.

Scolds the Bear (member of Crow police), p.29, 105, 209, 271.

Scratches Face, p.108-110, 157.

Shades Face, p.243.

Sharp Horn, p.13, 173, 180, 189, 200, 202, 205.

Shell Necklace, p.51, 56, 83.

Short Bull, p.242.

Shows a Fish, p.217.

Sits In the Middle of the Ground, p.236-237.

Sitting Elk, p.180-181, 183, 200-201, 205-206.

Size of Iron, p.26.

Small Back, p.232.

Small Whetstone, p.44.

Spotted Fish, p.12.

Spotted Rabbit, p.19, 48-49, 331-332.

Strikes At Night, p.248, 273.

Strikes Both Ways, p.275.

Sunrise, p.24.

Takes It Back Twice, p.262.

Takes the Dead, p.304, 312.

Three Wolves, p.277.

Tough Necked Dog, p.44.

Two Faces, p.19.

Two Whistles, p.179.

Uses Scalp For a Necklace, p.107.

Wants To Die, p.232, 235.

Wants To Live, p.239.

White Arm, p.105, 107.

White Buffalo, p.179.

White Hip (Grey Bull’s son), p.64.

White Man Runs Him, p.6, 29.

White Stripe Across the Face, p.277-279.

Wolf Lies Down, p.208-209.

Yellow Brow, p.17, 31, 58, 104, 107, 109-110, 217.

Yellow Buffalo, p.74.

Yellow Crane, p.62.

Yellow Face, p.180.

Yellow Mule, p.61.

Yellowtail, Robert, p.xi, xxvi.

Young Crane, p.39, 46, 66, 111, 285-286, 297, 299.

Young Jackrabbit, p.26, 177-178.

Young Rabbit, p.110.

Young White Buffalo, p.231.


Bands: three divisions of the Crow: Mountain Crow, River Crow, Kicked in the

Bellies, p.4.

Beadwork and quillwork: women made elaborately decorated leather pouches, p.77-81.

Behavior: Crows bathed often and drank a lot of water, p.89-90.

Behavior: jealousy was beyond a man’s dignity, p.55.

Beliefs: according to Bauerle there is only the Creator, First Maker, in position of

worship, p.v.

Beliefs: Crow belief system, p.xviii.

Beliefs: Crow believed in transferring supernatural power by purchase or inheritance, p.248-249.

Beliefs: Crow believed that divine power was distributed throughout the universe, p.251.

Beliefs: Crow world-view, p.254-255.

Beliefs: they didn’t have a strong sense of after-life, p.69-70.

Birth: giving birth and midwifery, p.33-34.

Bows: Crow bow was made of horn or antler with sinew backing, p.85.

Camp life: camp crier, p.6.

Chief: batse’ tse Crow term for a chief translates to “good man”, p.5.

Chiefs: by 1910 there were 4 Crow chiefs left: Medicine Crow, Gray Bull, Bell Rock and Plenty Coups, p.216.

Chiefs: camp chief appointed one of the military clubs to act as police, p.5-6, 172, 193-194.

Chiefs: Lone Tree said a camp chief served as long as the tribe prospered under him, p.6.

Childhood: comrades, two boys with a close friendship, p.42.

Childhood: fun and games, p.35-42.

Clans: competitive fun between clans by Shot In the Arm and Gray Bull, p.14-15.

Clans: Crow clan system and the way it worked, p.8-13, 15-17.

Clans: joking relatives - played practical jokes, mocked ridiculous behavior, and publicly shamed people for improper conduct, p.15, 17, 22-23, 46.

Clans: large body of related people helped a person hold power, p.7.

Clans: members of the Bad War Honors clan were often considered dumb, p.16- 17.

Clans: origins of clan names, p.15.

Clans: paternal clan members praised their clan sons and sang praise songs, p.21, 224, 226.

Clans: paternal clansfolk were treated with great respect, p.20-21.

Clans: some clans were “linked” – helping each other, p.15-16.

Courting, p.49.

Creation story: Crow creation story and the sacred tobacco by Medicine Crow, p.274.

Creation story: Crow creation story by Yellow Brow, p.122-133.

Customs: adopting children, p.27.

Customs: Crow hospitality is carried to extreme lengths, p.90.

Customs: Crow mourning and burial customs, p.24, 66-68, 178-179, 332.

Customs: Crow pattern of inheritance, p.13-14.

Dances: adoption of Strikes At Night into the Horse Dance, p.257.

Dances: adoption was the essence of the Sacred Pipe dance, p.269, 271-273.

Dances: Fireless Dance was founded by Morning Star according to Bear Crane, p.317-318.

Dances: Hot Dance and the Crazy Dog Dance, p.173.

Dances: Hot Dance gave both spouses the chance to “throw away” their partner, p.57.

Dances: Hot Dancers; officers and rituals – they ate dogs and gave away property, p.206-213.

Dances: Owl dance and Goose Egg dance, p.92-95.

Dogs: reasons for having dogs, p.91.

Dress: Crow attire, p.81-82.

Dress: personal adornment, p.82.

Food: Crow were meat eaters, using roots and berries for seasonings and dessert, p.72.

Games: clowns, p.95-97.

Games: for adults; the hand game, dice, hoop throwing, shinny, p.98-103.

Hair: Crow hair styles, p.83-84.

Hidatsa-Crow separation, p.4.

Humor: Cutting someone’s hair as a joke, p.23.

Hunting: driving game into enclosures, p.72-73.

Incense: use of incense, p.256.

Kinship: “You are without relatives” = a person of no account, p.7.

Kinship: bond between siblings is very strong, p.25-26.

Kinship: man may joke and play with his sister-in-law, p.28-29.

Kinship: man’s brother-in-law was treated with respect, p.29-30.

Kinship: relationship between brother and sister, p.26.

Kinship: strong bond between father and son by Medicine Crow and Spotted

Rabbit, p.18.

Kinship: term “father” can refer to many different people, p.19-20.

Kinship: terminology, p.23-30.

Language: its complexities, p.xxiii-xxv, 18-19, 104, 108.

Literature: patterns in Crow poetry and prose, p.116-118.

Lullabies: often came from dreams or animal mothers, p.34-35.

Marriage: divorce was frequent, p.55.

Marriage: Gray Bull’s matrimonial “career”, p.53-54.

Marriage: men were not expected to be faithful by Gray Bull, p.48.

Marriage: only virtuous women were “purchased” to be married, p.50-51.

Marriage: women were admired for purity, but failing this they weren’t ostracized, p.47.

Marriage: Young Crane’s experiences in marriage, p.55.

Medicine: “smoking against someone”, p.62.

Medicine: batsira’pe (bachila’ape in the modern Crow orthography) means the inner dwelling spirit that appears when certain songs, smudge, etc are used, p.264.

Medicine: Big Ox and Bear Crane were buffalo charmers, p.74.

Medicine: cures and remedies, p.62-63.

Medicine: famous Crow medicine men and women, p.65-66.

Medicine: historic feud between Big Ox and White Thigh, p.62.

Medicine: how Muskrat acquired control over weasels, p.265.

Medicine: how Strikes At Night gained the Horse medicine bundle, p.248-249.

Medicine: many Crows considered themselves to be hosts to some batsira’pe (bachila’ape in the modern Crow orthography) which showed itself at the Bear Song dance, p.264-268.

Medicine: medicine men derived specific cures from their visions, p.63-64.

Medicine: medicine men, p.238-239.

Medicine: medicines and medicine bundles – most valuable type of property, p.14, 219, 224, 248, 250, 262.

Medicine: physical ailments were often ascribed to supernatural causes, p.61.

Medicine: sacred rocks, p.261-263.

Morals: Crow women had low morals, p.xviii.

Name: Apsaroka, mistakenly translated as Crow by whites, p.3.

Names: nicknames, p.44.

Naming: p.21, 42-44.

Physical attributes: Crow ideal of womanhood, p.59.

Physical attributes: Crow ideals of beauty, p.81.

Population: Crow numbers, p.xviii, 3.

Relations: Crow were closely related to the Hidatsa, p.xviii.

Relations: intertribal relations, p.xviii.

Religion: peyote faith, p.xi.

Religion: prayers, p.115.

Religion: religion and ethics have little to do with each other in Crow society, p.253.

Religion: Sun’s role in the Crow belief system according to Lowie, p.244, 252-253.

Religion: women were commonly men’s equals in religious rituals, p.60-61.

Rituals: Cooked Meat Singing; a medley of customs with sacred stones and a bear image told by Sitting Elk, p.258-260.

Rituals: in many Crow rituals married couples are considered a single unit, p.259- 260, 273.

Rituals: pipe bundle, p.270.

Sacred numbers: 4 leads to the four-fold repetition of acts and songs in ceremonies, p.256, 260.

Sexual orientation: berdaches, p.48.

Smoking: doing it right by Gray Bull, p.256, 260.

Smoking: ritualized, p.xvii-xviii, xxii.

Societies: Big Dogs: origin, customs, officers, emblems, p.192-197.

Societies: Bulls [Bull Owners], a more conservative and dignified society for older men, went extinct around 1875, p.204-206.

Societies: competition between the clubs made men fearless on the war path, p.191-192.

Societies: Crow war clubs - Foxes, Lumpwoods, Big Dogs, Muddy Hands, p.172.

Societies: Foxes; origin, dress, organization, officers , p.181- 191.

Societies: general history of the clubs – most originated from the Hidatsa, p.172- 173.

Societies: Gray Bull’s description of forming the Crazy Dog Society, p.213-214.

Societies: Hammer Owners = Hammers, a boy’s club, p.38, 113, 202-204, 218.

Societies: Lumpwoods; origin, dress, organization, officers, p.174-181.

Societies: Muddy Hands, p.197-200.

Societies: Ravens and Little Dogs, two clubs long gone by 1907, p.200-202.

Societies: the various clubs have always had intense rivalries, p.193.

Stories of poor, lonely orphans, p.7-8.

Stories of Top of the Bull and Young Cottontail, p.328-329.

Stories: benevolent helpers in Crow folktales, p.241-242, 245-248.

Stories: contemporary Crow stories, p.105-106.

Stories: Crows have numerous Old Man Coyote and Old Woman’s Grandchild

stories, p.111-112.

Stories: many of the stories are common among several tribes, p.112-113.

Stories: proper way of reciting a story, p.106-111.

Story: Double Face, p.333-334.

Story: Old Man Coyote and his dart by Yellow Brow, p.119-122.

Story: Old Woman’s Grandchild by Yellow Brow, p.134-157.

Story: Twined Tail by Yellow Brow, p.158-171.

Sun Dance (new): Crow-Shoshone version, p.xi.

Sun Dance (old): a way to get a vision to avenge a kinsman’s death by an enemy, p.297.

Sun Dance (old): according to Sharp Horn the Sun Dance was started by Iâ’kac, p.302.

Sun Dance (old): collection of buffalo tongues for payment of services and feeding the people, p.298.

Sun Dance (old): cutting the lodge poles, p.311-314.

Sun Dance (old): doll owned by Wrinkled Face was one of the greatest Crow medicines, p.299-300.

Sun Dance (old): dolls and doll bundles, p.302-304, 324-325.

Sun Dance (old): dolls could also be used by a warrior for good luck on the warpath, p.301.

Sun Dance (old): erecting the lodge, p.315-317.

Sun Dance (old): getting the two buffalo bulls needed for the Sun Dance lodge, p.308-311.

Sun Dance (old): getting white clay for the Whistler’s bed, p.318-319.

Sun Dance (old): Master of ceremonies = a medicine man who owned one of the sacred dolls, p.298-299, 304.

Sun Dance (old): original Crow version, p.61, 215, 241, 260-261.

Sun Dance (old): pledger was called Whistler, p.297, 321, 323-324.

Sun Dance (old): preparation of the Whistler, p.304-308.

Sun Dance (old): self-tortures, p.321, 325.

Sun Dance (old): Sharp Horn’s doll bundle, p.301.

Sun Dance (old): the actual dance, p.319-325.

Sun Dance (old): the bird-man, p.316-317.

Sun Dance (old): Tree-notcher had to be a virtuous woman, p.312.

Sun Dance (old): White Spot On the Neck failed as Whistler causing 12 Crow to be killed by Dakota, p.324.

Sweat lodge: ritual, p.64, 250-251, 257-258, 285-287.

Taboos: against mentioning the name of a dead person, p.68-69.

Taboos: marrying within the clan; doing it led to confusion and ridicule by Gray Bull, p.45-46.

Taboos: mother-in-law and other tabooed relatives, p.xx, xxii, 30-31.

Taboos: other reasons for marriage taboos, p.46-47.

Taboos: ways to revoke the mother-in-law taboo, p.31-32.

Tipi: Crow tipi, p.86-89.

Tobacco Ceremony: between planting and harvesting several rules were observed, p.293-294.

Tobacco Ceremony: choosing medicines, p.286-287.

Tobacco Ceremony: consists of adoption and the ceremonial planting and harvesting of tobacco, p.277.

Tobacco Ceremony: Crow believed planting tobacco ensured welfare of the people, p.276, 295.

Tobacco Ceremony: Fire Weasel had an egg inside him that emerged during

Tobacco Dance, p.265-266.

Tobacco Ceremony: harvesting the seed, p.294-295.

Tobacco Ceremony: Lowie’s interpretation of the meaning of it, p.296.

Tobacco Ceremony: Medicine bearer led the procession to the garden site, p.289-291.

Tobacco Ceremony: members were painted, p.280-281.

Tobacco Ceremony: planting the tobacco seed, p.292-293.

Tobacco Ceremony: preparation of the candidates, p.280.

Tobacco Ceremony: prior to planting the seed was mixed with water and other ingredients by mixers, p.287-288.

Tobacco Ceremony: selling certain privileges, p.281.

Tobacco Ceremony: site of the garden was revealed in a dream to a mixer, p.287-288.

Tobacco Ceremony: songs, p.113-115.

Tobacco Ceremony: the garden site and its preparation, p.291-292.

Tobacco Ceremony: tobacco songs, p.238.

Tobacco Society: adoption into Tobacco Society, p.277, 279-285.

Tobacco Society: amounts paid in connection with initiation were staggering, p.287.

Tobacco Society: formation of the Strawberry, Buffalo, and the Blackbird chapters by Medicine Crow, Big Shoulder Blade, and Breath, p.275-276.

Tobacco Society: has numerous chapters, p.275.

Tobacco Society: normally a member remained in the chapter into which he/she was adopted, p.277-278.

Tobacco Society:, xx, 61, 215, 238, 241.

Tobacco Society: reasons for joining, p.278-279.

Tobacco Society: way it worked, p.274.

Trade:Crow traded with Mandans and Hidatsa for guns, iron tools, glass beads and cloth, p.xix

Visions: Arm Round the Neck’s dream, p.246.

Visions: dream that gave Bull All the Time his medicine power, p.246.

Visions: Flat Head Woman’s vision of “long species of grass”, p.250.

Visions: Gray Bull’s dream, p.246-247.

Visions: Lone Tree was helped by thunder, p.242.

Visions: sacred object could stimulate a vision by Child In the Mouth, p.249.

Visions: supernaturals that appear in visions with frequency, p.251-252.

Visions: vision quest of Scratches Face, p.247.

Visions: visions and the vision quest, p.52, 61, 74, 237-243, 245, 251, 253.

War: a concern for the entire Crow population from cradle to grave, p.215.

War: a coup-stick, p.85.

War: all Plains tribes avoided loss of life of their own tribe members, p.227.

War: clubs and shields, p.86-87.

War: coups a warrior had to accomplish to attain the rank of chief, p.5, 216-218, 225, 228-229.

War: Crazy Dog wishing to die; a man no longer interested in living, p.330-332.

War: Crow treatment of prisoners, p.229-230.

War: customs when a member of the party was killed, p.227.

War: description of a raid by No Shinbone, p.221-222.

War: Gray Bull’s raid into the Shoshone country, p.222-223.

War: Gray Bull’s story about a war party, p.223-225.

War: in 1907 men were still rated according to their valor, p.xx-xxi.

War: Major war expedition against the Cheyenne led by Sore Belly, p.230-236.

War: only road to distinction in Crow society was military prowess, p.215.

War: prominence in Crow society rested on individual merit, p.6.

War: reasons for warfare - lust for fame, desire for horses, revenge, p.219-220, 228.

War: robe of Charges Strong pictured his war deeds, p.217-218.

War: scouts (wolves), p.220.

War: seasoned warriors often made a boy’s first raid a hard one, p.219.

War: training for war began in childhood, p.218-219.

War: typical raid was based on a dream, p.219-221.

War: victory celebrations, p.225-227.

War: warrior’s blackened face symbolized the killing of an enemy, p.225.

White-Crow relations: Crows didn’t kill whites, but commonly robbed them, p.xviii.

Wife kidnapping: by Strikes At Night, p.186-188.

Wife kidnapping: taking back a stolen wife was shameful, p.56, 189-190.

Wife stealing: Lumpwoods and Foxes abducted each other’s wives, p.50-51, 53- 54,186, 188-191, 200.

Work: Curing the meat and tanning the hides was woman’s work, p.74-77, 84.

Work: hunting big game was a man’s chief task, p.72.

Work: man’s work was hunting and fighting, p.84.

Work: position and tasks of a Crow woman, p.60-61.

Wraps Up His Tail incident, p.238.


Crow Indians|xArms and armor. Weapons.

Crow Indians|xBeadwork.

Crow Indians|xBuffalo.

Crow Indians|xBurial customs.

Crow Indians|xChiefs.

Crow IndiansxChildren.

Crow Indians|xClans.

Crow Indians|xClan role.

Crow Indians|xClan structure.

Crow Indians|xCostume. Adornment.

Crow Indians|xCoups.

Crow Indians|xCreation story.

Crow Indians|xDance.

Crow Indians|xDiseases.

Crow Indians|xDomestic animals.

Crow Indians|xEmbroidery.

Crow Indians|xEthics.

Crow Indians|xEthnic identity.

Crow Indians|vFiction.

Crow Indians|xFolklore.

Crow Indians|xFood.

Crow Indians|xGambling. (Including gambling on Indian reservations.)

Crow Indians|xGames. Recreation. Sports.

Crow Indians|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xHorses.

Crow Indians|xHumor.

Crow Indians|xHunting.

Crow Indians|xIntertribal relations.

Crow Indians|xIntertribal warfare.

Crow Indians|xInterviews.

Crow Indians|xKicked in the Bellies.

Crow Indians|xKinship.

Crow Indians|xLanguages.

Crow Indians|xLeatherwork. Tanning.

Crow Indians|xLegends.

Crow Indians|xMarriage customs and rites.

Crow Indians|xMaterial culture.

Crow Indians|xMedicine. Medicine men.

Crow Indians|xMountain Crow.

Crow Indians|xNames.

Crow Indians|xOral tradition.

Crow Indians|vPoetry.

Crow Indians|xPopulation.

Crow Indians|xPolitical and religious leadership.

Crow Indians|xPolitics and government.

Crow Indians|xReligion and mythology.

Crow Indians|xRiding gear.

Crow Indians|xRites and ceremonies.

Crow Indians|xRiver Crow.

Crow Indians|xScouts.

Crow Indians|xSexual behavior. (Including homosexuality.)

Crow Indians|xSocial conditions.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs.

Crow Indians|xSocieties.

Crow Indians|xSongs and music.

Crow Indians|xSun Dance.

Crow Indians|xSweatbaths.

Crow Indians|xSweat lodge ritual.

Crow Indians|xTobacco use.

Crow Indians|xTobacco pipes. Smoking.

Crow Indians|xTobacco society.

Crow Indians|xTraditional values.

Crow Indians|xTribal government. Politics and government.

Crow Indians|xVision quest, visions.

Crow Indians|xWarfare. Scalping.

Crow Indians|xWomen.

Crow Indians|xWraps Up His Tail incident.


Local Subject Headings for Crow Indians


Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana.

Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana|xBoundaries.

Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana|xHistory.

Crow Indian Reservation|z Montana|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana|vMaps.

Crow Indian Reservation|zMontana|xSupply fraud controversy, 1876-1879.


Crow Indians|xAcculturation.

Crow Indians|xArchitecture.

Crow Indians|xAgriculture.

Crow Indians|x Antiquities.

Crow Indians|xArms and armor. Weapons.

Crow Indians|x Art.

Crow Indians|xArt|vCongresses.

Crow Indians|xArt|vExhibitions.

Crow Indians|xArts.

Crow Indians|xAstronomy.

Crow Indians|xAttitudes.

Crow Indians|xBands.

Crow Indians|xBeadwork.

Crow Indians|xBeadwork|vExhibitions.

Crow Indians|xBeadwork|vPictorial works.

Crow Indians|vBibliography.

Crow Indians|vBiography.

Crow Indians|vBiography|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xBiology. Ethnobiology.

Crow Indians|xBotany (Economic). Ethnobotany.

Crow Indians|xBuffalo.

Crow Indians|xBurial customs.

Crow Indians|xBusiness enterprises.

Crow Indians|xCalendar.

Crow Indians|xCartography. (Including works about maps on Indian lands.)

Crow Indians|xCensus.

Crow Indians|xChiefs.

Crow Indians|xChiefs|vBiography.

Crow Indians|xChiefs|vBiography|v Juvenile literature.

Crow IndiansxChildren.

Crow Indians|xChronology.

Crow IndiansxClaims.

Crow Indians|xClans.

Crow Indians|xClan role.

Crow Indians|xClan structure.

Crow Indians|xCommerce.

Crow Indians|xCommunication.

Crow Indians|xCosmology.

Crow Indians|xCostume. Adornment.

Crow Indians|xCoups.

Crow Indians|xCreation story.

Crow Indians|xCrime. Police. (Including Indian reservation police.)

Crow Indians|xCrow Fair.

Crow Indians|xCrow Fair|z Crow Agency, Mont.|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xCultural assimilation.

Crow Indians|xCultural assimilation|xStudy and teaching.

Crow Indians|xDance.

Crow Indians|xDance|xDaytime dance.

Crow Indians|xDance|xMasquerade dance.

Crow Indians|xDiseases.

Crow Indians|xDolls.

Crow Indians|xDomestic animals.

Crow Indians|xDrama.

Crow Indians|xDwellings.Furniture.

Crow Indians|xDwellings|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xDwellings|xStudy and teaching.

Crow Indians|xEconomic conditions.

Crow Indians|xEducation.

Crow Indians|xEducation|xCurricula.

Crow Indians|xEducation (Higher).

Crow Indians|xEducation (Higher)|xPhilosophy.

Crow Indians|xEducation|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xEducation (Primary).

Crow Indians|xEmbroidery.

Crow Indians|xEmployment.

Crow Indians|xEthics.

Crow Indians|xEthnic identity.

Crow Indians|vEulogy.

Crow Indians|xFinancial affairs. (Including trust estates, revolving credit fund, relief)

Crow Indians|xFire use.

Crow Indians|xFirst contact with Europeans.

Crow Indians|xFishing.

Crow Indians|vFiction.

Crow Indians|xFolklore.

Crow Indians|xFolklore|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xFood.

Crow Indians|x Food|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xForeign influences.

Crow Indians|xFootwear.

Crow Indians|xGambling. (Including gambling on Indian reservations.)

Crow Indians|xGames. Recreation. Sports.

Crow Indians|xGenealogy.

Crow Indians|xGovernment relations.

Crow Indians|xGovernment relations|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xGovernment relations|xStudy and teaching.

Crow Indians|xHandicapped Indians. Indians with disabilities.

Crow Indians|xHealth and hygiene.

Crow Indians|xHidatsa-Crow separation.

Crow Indians|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xHistory|xChronology.

Crow Indians|xHistory|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xHistory|vPictorial works.

Crow Indians|xHistory|xStudy and teaching.

Crow Indians|xHistoric sites.

Crow Indians|xHorses.

Crow Indians|xHousing.

Crow Indians|xHumor.

Crow Indians|xHunting.

Crow Indians|vIndexes.

Crow Indians|xIndustries.

Crow Indians|xIndustries|vCongresses.

Crow Indians|xIntertribal relations.

Crow Indians|xIntertribal warfare.

Crow Indians|xInterviews.

Crow Indians|xIrrigation.

Crow Indians|xJewelry.

Crow Indians|vJuvenile fiction.

Crow Indians|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xKicked in the Bellies.

Crow Indians|xKinship.

Crow Indians|xLand tenure.

Crow Indians|xLand transfers.

Crow Indians|xLanguages.

Crow Indians|xLanguages|vDictionaries.

Crow Indians|xLeatherwork. Tanning.

Crow Indians|xLegal status, laws, etc.

Crow Indians|xLegends.

Crow Indians|xLegends|xDrama.

Crow Indians|xLegends|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xLiquor use. Alcohol use.

Crow Indians|xLittle Big Horn College.

Crow Indians|xMagic.

Crow Indians|xMarriage customs and rites.

Crow Indians|vMaps.

Crow Indians|xMaterial culture.

Crow Indians|xMedical care.

Crow Indians|xMedicine. Medicine men.

Crow Indians|xMigration.

Crow Indians|xMilitary capacity and organization. Indians as soldiers.

Crow Indians|xMissions.

Crow Indians|xMissions|xHistory.

Crow Indians|xMixed descent.

Crow Indians|xMoney. Wampum.

Crow Indians|xMountain Crow.

Crow Indians|xMourning.

Crow Indians|xMuseums|vExhibitions.

Crow Indians|xMusic.

Crow Indians|xNames.

Crow Indians|xNarcotics. Drugs.

Crow Indians|vNewspapers.

Crow Indians|xOral tradition.

Crow Indians|xPainting.

Crow Indians|vPeriodicals.

Crow Indians|xPetroglyphs. Rock paintings.

Crow Indians|xPhilosophy.

Crow Indians|vPhotographs.

Crow Indians|vPictorial works.

Crow Indians|vPictorial works|vExhibitions.

Crow Indians|vPoetry.

Crow Indians|vPoetry|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xPopulation.

Crow Indians|xPolitical and religious leadership.

Crow Indians|xPolitics and government.

Crow Indians|xPolitics and government|xStudy and teaching.

Crow Indians|vPortraits.

Crow Indians|xPottery.

Crow Indians|xPowwows.

Crow Indians|xPsychology.

Crow Indians|xPublic opinion about Indians. Popular attitudes toward Indians.

Crow Indians|xReligion and mythology.

Crow Indians|xRemoval.

Crow Indians|xRiding gear.

Crow Indians|xRites and ceremonies.

Crow Indians|xRites and ceremonies|vPictorial works.

Crow Indians|xRiver Crow.

Crow Indians|xScouts.

Crow Indians|xSexual behavior. (Including homosexuality.)

Crow Indians|xSign language.

Crow Indians|xSocial conditions.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs|vJuvenile literature.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs|vPictorial works.

Crow Indians|xSocial life and customs|vSources.

Crow Indians|xSocieties.

Crow Indians|xSongs and music.

Crow Indians|xStatistics.

Crow Indians|xSuicide.

Crow Indians|xSun Dance.

Crow Indians|xSweatbaths.

Crow Indians|xSweat lodge ritual.

Crow Indians|xTobacco use.

Crow Indians|xTobacco pipes. Smoking.

Crow Indians|xTobacco society.

Crow Indians|xTraditional values.

Crow Indians|xTrails.

Crow Indians|xTrapping.

Crow Indians|xTreaties.

Crow Indians|xTribal government. Politics and government.

Crow Indians|xVision quest, visions.

Crow Indians|xWarfare. Scalping.

Crow Indians|xWars.

Crow Indians|xWars|vFiction.

Crow Indians|xWife abuse.

Crow Indians|xWomen.

Crow Indians|xWomen|vBiography.

Crow Indians|xWraps Up His Tail incident.

Crow Indians|xYouth.

Crow language.

Crow language|xAlphabet.

Crow language|xDictionaries, English.

Crow language|xGrammar.

Crow language|xOrthography and spelling.

Crow language|xPronunciation.

Crow language|xReaders.

Crow language|xReaders |vJuvenile literature.

Crow language|xSpoken Crow.

Crow language|xStudy and teaching.

Crow language|xStudy and teaching|vHhandbooks, manuals, etc.

Crow language|xStudy and teaching|vPperiodicals.

Crow language|xTexts.


Partial List of Local Subject Index Categories

(593 field)













Beadwork and quillwork











Camp life



Chiefs - put names of chiefs and what those individual chiefs did under this

Chieftainship – put the requirements for being a chief and their duties here










Crazy Dogs

Creation story


Crossing rivers

Crow country

Crow historian

Crow Indians

Crow oral literature






























Hidatsa-Crow separation


Horse stealing



















Material culture









Oral tradition




Personal rituals

Physical attributes








Pre-historic site















Sacred numbers

Sacred sites



Sexual orientation











Sun Dance (old)

Sun Dance (new)

Sun Dance

Sweat lodge







Tobacco Ceremony

Tobacco Society









Treaties and agreements


Tribal government

Tribal politics

Tribal structure


Vision quest





White-Crow relations

White-Indian relations

Wife kidnapping\\Wife stealing

Wild game



Wraps Up His Tail Incident


The Dewey system is called ‘decimal’ because it arranges library materials into 10 broad subject classes; organized by disciplines or fields of study. Each class in turn is divided into 10 divisions, each division into 10 sections. The main classes, divisions, and sections are known collectively as the DDC Summaries.

The subjects are arranged from the general to the specific in a logical order. The more specific the work you are trying to classify, the longer the number combination becomes.

Arabic numerals are used to represent each class in the DDC. A decimal point follows the third digit in a class number, after which division by ten continues to the specific degree of classification needed.

The basic concepts of how DDC works are covered in 2 places: the introduction and the manual.

The introduction explains the schedules and tables. It also contains instructions in classifying and building numbers using DDC, while the manual provides extended discussions on choices among related numbers, and on classification in complicated areas of the tables and schedules.

The DDC is indexed by a unique tool known as the “Relative Index.” It shows the relationship between subjects and the disciplines in which they appear. Note: A basic premise in DDC is that there is no one class for any given subject - the same subject may appear in several disciplines. The differing aspects of the topic are brought together in the relative index (v.4).

Example: Clothing has aspects that fall under several disciplines.

Example: A book dealing with food maybe cataloged in several locations as well depending on its emphasis. Some of the choices are:

394.1 Customs related to food

398.27 Folklore about food

575.7 Food storage (Plant physiology)

591.5 Food habits (Animals)

616.97 Food allergies

664 Commercial processing technology of food

613.2 Health food

641.4 Food storage (Home economics)

641.5 Cooking food

641.59297 Crow Indians - food

Note: After determining the subject and the discipline of the work, check your library’s shelflist to see where other works like the one you are classifying reside in your collection to keep all similar items in one location. Though the DDC has a number for all books, including fiction, most libraries create a separate fiction section. This allows shelving in a more generalized fashion and allows readers to find preferred authors by alphabetical order of surname.

Note: Take into account your collection, user group, and the nature of the material when making decisions about call numbers! For example you might want to separate all works dealing with Indians into a ‘Native American’ collection, while books about your own tribe would go into the equivalent of our Crow collection.

For more information about Dewey you can check out one or more of the following web sites:

OCLC offers really well done set of training materials for DDC focused on the needs of experienced librarians needing Dewey application training ( The materials include modules on general principles governing the operation of the DDC, as well as modules on the structure and use of specific tables and main classes. All course materials are available on the Dewey web site at no charge.

Another comprehensive resource for Dewey cataloging is the Dewey Decimal Hotlist for librarians . This list of links was created to classify DDC information found on the Internet that could be used in teaching students. The site includes: simplified Dewey Decimal schedules for student use/reference; tutorials to be used as a lesson, or part of a lesson; URLs arranged by DDS for children; and WebQuests, to see what others have done; as well as professional articles containing ideas to teach the Dewey Decimal System. Has some good basic information about DDC.

The main structure of the DDC is presented in 3 main summaries. The first summary contains the 10 main classes; the 1st digit in each 3-digit number represents the main class.

The Ten Main Classes

000 Computer science, information & general works

100 Philosophy & psychology

200 Religion

300 Social sciences

400 Language

500 Science

600 Technology

700 Arts & recreation

800 Literature

900 History & geography

Example: 600 represents technology.

Each main class is separated into 10 divisions. The second summary contains the hundred divisions - the 2nd digit in the 3-digit code. The table below is an example of the divisions of a typical DDC class.

Example: 600 = general works of technology; 610 = medicine & health, 620 =

engineering, 630 = agriculture.

Second Summary - The Hundred Divisions

600 Technology

610 Medicine & health

620 Engineering

630 Agriculture

640 Home & family management

650 Management & public relations

660 Chemical engineering

670 Manufacturing

680 Manufacture for specific uses

690 Building & construction

The third summary contains the thousand sections - the third digit in the 3-digit code. The following table illustrates the 10 sections within the medicine & health division (610).

Summary of the Sections of a Hundred Divisions

610 Medicine & health

611 Human anatomy, cytology & histology

612 Human physiology

613 Personal health & safety

614 Incidence & prevention of disease

615 Pharmacology & therapeutics

616 Diseases

617 Surgery & related medical specialties

618 Gynecology, obstetrics, pediatrics & geriatrics

619 [Unassigned]

Example: 610 = general works on medicine and health, 611 = human anatomy,

612 = human physiology, 613 = personal health and safety.

In the schedules, each of the 1000 numbers is explained fully (with references to other sections when necessary).

Example: 612 Human physiology

612.001 - .009 Standard subdivisions

612.1-612.8 Specific functions, systems, organs

[612].1 Circulatory system

.2 Respiratory system

.3 Digestive system

.4 Hematopoietic, lymphatic, glandular, urinary systems

.6 Reproduction, development, maturation

.7 Musculoskeletal system, integument

.8 Nervous system

.9 Regional physiology

In the full schedules the 1000 sections are listed separately, followed in detail by any subdivision they may have. See the example below:

Extended Decimal Subdivisions of a DDC Topic

612 Human physiology

612.1 Blood and circulation

612.11 Blood

612.12 Blood chemistry

612.13 Blood vessels and vascular circulation

612.14 Blood pressure

612.17 Heart

612.18 Vasometers

Volume 2 presents in detail the subjects placed in the 000 through 599, while volume 3 contains the same information for subjects place in divisions from 600 through 999.

Entries in the schedules

Entries in the schedules and tables are composed of a DDC number in the number column (= the left margin), a heading describing the class that the number represents, and often one or more notes that further describe the class, provide instruction on notational synthesis, or define relationships with other classes.

In the print version of the DDC, the first three digits of schedule numbers (main classes, divisions, sections) appear only when first used. They are repeated at the top of each page where their subdivisions continue. Subordinate numbers appear in the number column, beginning with a decimal point, with the initial three digits understood.

Note: Numbers and notes in parentheses provide options to standard practice. Optional numbers give emphasis to a topic not given preferred treatment in the standard notation.

Example: (Option B: Class individual biography in 92, or B). Note: Numbers in square brackets represent topics that have been relocated or discontinued, or are unassigned. Square brackets are also used for standard subdivision concepts that are represented in another location. Numbers in square brackets are never used.


Hierarchy in the DDC is expressed through structure and notation. Knowledge is organized first by discipline and then by subject in a hierarchical structure in which topics progress from the general to the specific.

Structural hierarchy means that all topics (aside from the 10 main classes) are part of all the broader topics above them. Any note regarding the nature of a class holds true for all the subordinate classes, including logically subordinate topics classed at coordinate numbers.

Notational hierarchy is expressed by length of notation. For a class within a given hierarchy, the next broader topic will generally be represented by a number one digit shorter, and subordinate topics will generally be one digit longer. Coordinate topics are usually represented by the same number of digits.

Example of notational hierarchy: 600 Technology

630 Agriculture and related technologies

636 Animal husbandry

636.7 Dogs

636.8 Cats

“Dogs” and “Cats” are more specific than (= subordinate to) “Animal husbandry”; they are equally specific as (= coordinate with) each other; and “Animal husbandry” is less specific than (= superordinate to) “Dogs” and “Cats.” Sometimes, other devices must be used to express the hierarchy when it is not possible or desirable to do so through the notation. Special headings, notes, and entries indicate relationships among topics that violate notational hierarchy.

Note: Always scan all the numbers within the subdivision to find the most precise one; the larger your collection on any given topic the more specificity you will need (meaning the longer your call numbers will be). See the example below:

A Typical DDC Hierarchical Sequence

600 Technology (Applied sciences)

610 Medicine & health

612 Human physiology

612.1 Blood and circulation

612.11 Blood

612.112 White corpuscles (Leukocytes)

Note: As the number gets longer, the book shows a space after every 3rd number. This is to make it easier to read the numbers. In bibliographic records you need to remove these spaces - to minimize the space of the record. For example: in the schedule 572.864 59 DNA repair [Biosynthesis - DNA - Biochemical genetics - Biochemistry]. Your entry should read: 572.86459.

Note: The schedules seldom expand with more than 4 decimal places. If you need more detail, you need to look under the relative index.

Note: If a specific number is unavailable, the schedules show a span of numbers with written guidance (which ‘guides’ you through the available number choices). These appear under a centered line, after the symbol > at the left margin. Such entries are always followed by a note that tells you where to class comprehensive works that cover the subject represented by the entry. For example:

A Typical DDC Centered Entry

439.7 - 439.8 East Scandinavian languages

Class comprehensive works in 439.5


One of the most helpful sources of information for the cataloger is the notes provided in DDC. There are 7 major kinds of notes.

Notes that tell what is found at a classification; including notes on: scope, definition, former headings, variant name, and class-here. Scope and definition notes are used to list major topics that are included in a class and also to indicate where interdisciplinary and comprehensive works are to be classified.

Notes that tell what is found at other classifications, begin with the words: class, for, or see also. For example: at 338.5 General production economics is the following note: For organization of production, see 338.6.

Notes that identify topics in “standing room” provide a location for topics that do not yet have enough works about them to justify a separate number. Because it is assumed that more works on these topics are likely, DDC rules do not allow any number building.

Notes explaining changes in schedules and tables since the last edition of DDC.

Notes that instruct the cataloger in number building provide ways to come up with a more detailed call number.

Notes that prescribe citation and preference order help the cataloger decide which aspect to use for the call number. Citation order allows the use of 2 or more characteristics in a specified order, while preference order establishes the order in which one chooses a characteristic when only 1 can be chosen.

Example: 006 Special computer methods


Unless other instructions are given, class complex subjects with aspects in two or more subdivisions of 006 in the one coming last, e.g., natural language processing in expert systems 006.35 (not 006.33)

Notes that explain options are given in parentheses and can be helpful in providing alternate methods for handling some situations. Example: 016 Bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific subjects or in specific disciplines


(Option: Class with the specific discipline or subject, using notation 016 from Table 1, e.g., bibliographies or medicine 610.16)

Note: Start with the relative index (v.4) to see where the numbers you are looking for will be located.

Note: Go to v.3 of the DDC schedules (6xx-9xx) to find the structure that appears in the example above.

Note: Always read the entry number below the number you think is correct to make sure there is nothing that is closer.

The 7 auxiliary tables in Dewey give a cataloger a way to expand existing numbers in the schedules.

Each number in the tables is preceded by a dash to show it cannot “stand alone” as a class number. Remove it when you attach the number to the call number.

Table 1. Standard subdivisions

This table can be used to designate the form (e.g., encyclopedia, periodical) or the modes of treatment (e.g., theoretical/philosophical or historical aspects) of the work.

The examples below illustrate some of the categories found in Table 1.

-01 Philosophy and theory. An exposition of any subject treated from the theoretical point of view. Example: Architecture = 720. A book concentrating on the theory of architecture would be cataloged under the theoretical/philosophical treatment of architecture, giving you the number: 720.1

Note: In this case there is no 0 in the number before the 1. The decimal point acts as the first 0. The schedules will tell you when to insert the 0. You need to read the instructions (= the fine print) and follow the examples provided. Sometimes double or triple 0 is used to introduce the subdivision (usually when the single -0 subdivision is already used for something else) - so pay attention!

-09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment. Example: 720.9 Fletcher’s history of architecture.

Note: The -09 subdivision can be geographically divided by adding the proper digits from Table 2. Example: 720.973 = history of architecture in the United States. 720 = Architecture; 720.9 = historical treatment of the topic; 73 = United States > 720.973

Most of the standard subdivisions in Table 1 have further subdivisions. For example under -01 Philosophy and theory the following subtopics are listed:

-011 Systems

-012 Classification

-013 Value

-014 Language and communication

-015 Scientific principles

-019 Psychological principles

Example: 720.15 = scientific principles of architecture.

Table 2. Geographic areas, historical periods, persons

If a heading can be subdivided geographically and the library has many holdings dealing with that subject, you can use Table 2 (the area table) to expand the number by region or site.

Following is the general arrangement of the table:

-01-05 Historical periods

-1 Areas, regions, places in general

-2 Persons regardless of area, region, or place

-3 The ancient world

-4 Europe Western Europe

-5 Asia Orient Far East

-6 Africa

-7 North America

-8 South America

-9 Other parts of the world and extraterrestrial worlds Pacific Ocean islands

Note: Area -1 is used to treat any subject geographically not limited by continent, country, or locality. Allows diverse works that are tied together through a shared element (e.g., the various phenomena occurring in the temperate zones of the world) to be classified together under certain subject areas.

Note: Area -2 permits subdivision by biography, diaries etc., of persons associated with a subject for which the schedule instructions say to add the ‘areas’ notation directly instead of adding a ‘standard subdivision’ notation -092 from Table 1.

Note: Area notations -4 through -9 are for specific continents and modern countries. Most include further subdivisions as well.

Example: A case when the area notations can be added directly to schedule numbers - a general work on higher education in Dundee, Scotland:

378 Higher education

378.4 Europe

378.41 British Isles

378.412 Northeaster Scotland

378.4127 City of Dundee

Note: If no specific instructions for geographic treatment exist, you can apply the standard subdivision -09 Historical and geographical treatment (Table 1).

Table 3. Subdivisions for the arts, individual literatures and specific literary forms

This table is actually a group of three different tables:

Table 3-A = subdivisions for works by or about individual authors.

Table 3-B = subdivisions for works by or about more than one author.

Table 3-C = notation to be added where instructed in Table 3-B, 700.4, and in 808-809.

Note: These tables are used only following specific instructions. Example: you have a book on German poetry. You would choose the following numbers: 83 German literature + the appropriate form number from table 3-A (-1 = poetry) > 83.1 = German poetry

Note: Flow charts for building literature numbers can be found at the Table 3 instructions (v.4 of the manual). Use them - they make it a lot easier to navigate the huge amount of instructions that accompany this set of tables.

Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual languages and language families

Table 4 is used to organize works in various languages (writing systems, etymology, dictionaries etc.). It is used with base numbers for individual languages (explained under 420-490). Every language is organized the same way.

Note: In this table the last 0 of the language (e.g., German language = 430) is replaced by the subdivision number.

Example: -3 in table 4 denotes dictionaries of the standard form of the language

433 = dictionaries of the standard form of German.

Note: However, if the language doesn’t end in a 0, just add the subdivision to the end of the language.

Example: Crow language = 497.5 > Crow language dictionary = 497.53

Table 5. Ethnic and national groups

Table 5 is used according to instructions at certain places in the schedules or I other tables, or after the placement of -089 from Table 1.

Table 6. Languages

This table refers to the language the work is written in.

Note: The abridged version only includes the first 4 tables.

Adding from other parts of the schedules

In several places you are instructed to find a number elsewhere in the schedules and add it to the number you already have. See following example:

750 Painting and paintings


758 Other subjects


758.9 Other

Add to base number 758.9 notation 001-999, e.g., paintings of historical events 758.99 ...

Example: If you wanted to classify paintings of library buildings, the number for the architecture of library buildings (727.8) would be attached to 758.9 > 758.97278.

Note: When a single work contains multiple aspects of a subject, such as age, gender, and physical characteristics, you need to make sure to observe citation and preference order. As always - FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS!!!

Start by determining the subject (using the title, table of contents, introduction, summary or scan through the work if necessary).

The next step is to select the field of study the work belongs to. In DDC the work is classed in the discipline for which it is intended, rather than the discipline from which the work derives so works that are used together are shelved together.

When you think of a Dewey number you probably think of 3 digits, followed by a decimal point and further digits. This is the end result of using the schedules, but in creating a number it is helpful to string together all of the necessary numbers, and then place the decimal point as the final step in the process. This is particularly true when using the tables to add specific details to the notations from the schedules.

Once you have determined the subject and the discipline use the schedules to come up with a DDC number. Use the summaries, headings, and notes in the schedules and the manual for guidance. The examples that will be shown in this course come from the abridged 15th edition of Dewey; the most recent abridged edition at the time of this writing.

The simplest method

The easiest way to create a notation is by looking up a subject in the Relative Index (an alphabetical list of subjects with the disciplines in which they are treated sub-arranged alphabetically under each entry) and finding a complete notation in the schedules. Here are some examples of that process.

Example: You need to classify a work about carpentry. Start by looking up ‘carpentry’ in the relative index. This refers you to notation 694 for Wood Construction, with a note stating: Class here carpentry. Thus 694 would be the DDC number for this item.

Note: The number given in the index is the classification number, not the page number in the schedules on which the subject can be found. When looking up a notation in the DDC, the numbers at the top corners of each page are guide numbers designed to show you what section of the schedules you are looking at. Page numbers are listed at the bottoms of the pages.

Example: You have a book on Navajo rug weaving. In the index you can see that rugs should be classed under 645 if the work is about rugs as furnishings, under 746.7 when the subject deals with rugs as a form of textile art. You also have the option of classifying rugs as a form of interior decoration (747). Since your book is about weaving, see if 746.7 would work. On page 811 you find the basic notation 746 = Textile arts.

There are 2 scope notes shown, advising you that this notations includes specific materials (e.g., rugs) as well as textile handicrafts. There is specific information about classing rugs and carpets under 746.7.

On the following page you can see that the basic notation 746.7 is indeed the correct location for your book.

The second method - Number building

Only a fraction of potential DDC numbers are included in the schedules. Often you’ll need to build a more complicated number that is not listed in the schedules. Such built numbers allow for greater depth of content analysis. There are four sources of notation for building numbers: (A) Table 1 Standard Subdivisions; (B) Tables 2-6; (C) other parts of the schedules; and (D) add tables within the schedules.

Number building is initiated only upon instructions in the schedules (except for the addition of standard subdivisions, which may take place anywhere unless there is an instruction to the contrary). Number building begins with a base number (always stated in the instruction note) to which another number is added.

In addition to classification numbers, the index may refer you to a table which might also be relevant to the subject. Such references begin with the letter "T," followed by the number of the table and then the relevant number in the table. An example of this can be found on page xlvii of the Abridged Edition under the entry B adding from tables 2-4: 8-13.

Example: This example shows the use of both Tables 1 and 2. The book to be cataloged deals with reading instruction in the primary schools of Australia = 372.40994. 372.4 = primary education in reading. To this you’d add 09 from Table 1 = History, geographic treatment, biography and 94 from Table 2 for the country of Australia.

Example: You need to come up with a call number for Lowie’s “Myths and traditions of the Crow Indians”. DDC doesn’t have a notation for ‘traditions’. Reading the book you will notice it contains information on multiple topics - most of them dealing with tribal customs (mourning and death, domestic life, intertribal relations and war etc.).

As the title suggests, the book also deals with Crow myths. In the relative index the heading ‘myth’ is given the number 398.2, while ‘customs (practices)’ is under 390. When you look up the class 390, you see it covers not only customs, but also etiquette and folklore. Because Lowie’s book contains many different customs and the title specifically refers to ‘myths’, giving it a call number reflecting the latter seems a good way to classify the item.

In the summary you can see 398 is the general class number for folklore. Looking it up you can see that ‘Folk literature’ should be classified under 398.2 (the same number as ‘myth’ in the index). The instructions also tell you to look in the Manual part of the book (See Manual at 398.2 vs. 391) where you are instructed to use 398.2 for “mythology having a nonreligious basis that deals with beliefs and stories that can be referred to as superstitions, legends, fairy tales, etc.” Further down p.551 is a reference to subdivision .208 = folk literature of groups of people. On the following page you can see that this can be further defined by ethnic and national groups - .208 9. Thus Lowie’s work should be given the DDC number 398.2089.

If you need further refinement, you can use information from table 5 and add 97 for just North American native peoples or 975 to indicate the Indians in question spoke a Siouan language. Thus you would end up with: 398.2089975. Add the name of the author and the year of publication and you will get a finished call number: 398.2089975 LOWIE 1993

Example: You need to catalog Pretty Shield: medicine woman of the Crows by Linderman. Here you have several options depending how you have arranged your collection.

You can treat the book as a simple biography. Looking in the index, you find that biography (p.986) can be classed in either 920 or using the standard subdivision -092 from table 1.

Looking at instructions for 920 you can see that you can class an individual biography of a woman at: 920.72.

Or you could choose to treat Pretty Shield as ‘associated with other subjects’ and give the book the call number: 920.9.

Or you can consider her to be a philosopher - she does spend considerable time in the book talking about how she views the world, her prayers etc. In this case you’d go with: 921.

Note: Some libraries make it easier for their patron’s to locate a specific biography by adding the person’s name to the call number: 921 Pretty Shield. You can also choose to emphasize the historical aspect of a biography by cataloging it under ‘History of North America’ (970) + .3 from the list that follows that number (p.950) Specific native peoples. Thus you’d have the call number: 970.3 (history of native peoples in North America).

If you want to make it clear where Pretty Shield lived, the historic option DDC prefers would be class numbers 971-979, with the use of subdivision 004 (North American native peoples). This option is listed on p.951 with instructions on how to build the number for Indians from different states. If you do that, you’d have a call number: 978.6004 = History of Montana Indians.

To further refine the topic, you can add 975 (from table 5) to indicate people who speak (or whose ancestor’s spoke) Siouan languages (Crow is one of these). The final call number would be: 978.6004975 = History of Montana Indians who speak Siouan languages.

Note: According to instructions about 971-979 (p.952) you should not use the standard subdivision -092 (biographical treatment) when using this class number for an individual biography.